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Effect of redox conditions on phosphate exchangeability and iron forms in a soil amended with ferrous iron

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Abstract
Application of iron (Fe) -rich amendments to soils has been proposed as a means of decreasing phosphorus (P) losses from soils. However, anoxic conditions following soil saturation are known to increase Fe and P solubility in soils, thus cancelling out the potential benefits. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of continuous oxic, continuous anoxic and alternating anoxic/oxic conditions on P exchangeability and Fe forms in soil amended with Ca(OH)(2) and FeSO(4). We incubated amended and unamended soils under these conditions for 8 weeks and measured Fe forms and P exchangeability. Under oxic conditions, addition of Ca(OH)(2) and FeSO(4) resulted in a strong decrease in P exchangeability and an increase in oxalate-extractable Fe. Mossbauer analyses suggested that an unidentified Fe oxide (D1oxide) with a strong sorbing capacity for P was precipitated. Under continuously anoxic conditions, P exchangeability and oxalate-extractable Fe increased with or without the amendments. Mossbauer analyses suggested that there was a partial dissolution of the D1oxide phase, precipitation of another unidentified Fe oxide (S3) and a reduction of structural Fe(3+) in phyllosilicate, thereby increasing soil negative charge. These transformations resulted in a strong increase in rapidly exchangeable P. Alternating anoxic and oxic periods induced the dissolution and precipitation of iron oxides and the increase and decrease in P exchangeability. Implications of the results for limiting P losses from grassland soils are discussed.
Keywords
TRANSFORMATION, DESORPTION, TERM, SORPTION, AVAILABILITY, PHOSPHORUS BEHAVIOR, FLOODED-DRAINED SOILS, MAIZE ROOT MUCILAGE, SOLUBILITY, ADSORPTION

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MLA
Schärer, M et al. “Effect of Redox Conditions on Phosphate Exchangeability and Iron Forms in a Soil Amended with Ferrous Iron.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE 60.3 (2009): 386–397. Print.
APA
Schärer, M., De Grave, E., Semalulu, O., Sinaj, S., Vandenberghe, R., & Frossard, E. (2009). Effect of redox conditions on phosphate exchangeability and iron forms in a soil amended with ferrous iron. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 60(3), 386–397.
Chicago author-date
Schärer, M, Eddy De Grave, O Semalulu, S Sinaj, Robert Vandenberghe, and E Frossard. 2009. “Effect of Redox Conditions on Phosphate Exchangeability and Iron Forms in a Soil Amended with Ferrous Iron.” European Journal of Soil Science 60 (3): 386–397.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schärer, M, Eddy De Grave, O Semalulu, S Sinaj, Robert Vandenberghe, and E Frossard. 2009. “Effect of Redox Conditions on Phosphate Exchangeability and Iron Forms in a Soil Amended with Ferrous Iron.” European Journal of Soil Science 60 (3): 386–397.
Vancouver
1.
Schärer M, De Grave E, Semalulu O, Sinaj S, Vandenberghe R, Frossard E. Effect of redox conditions on phosphate exchangeability and iron forms in a soil amended with ferrous iron. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE. 2009;60(3):386–97.
IEEE
[1]
M. Schärer, E. De Grave, O. Semalulu, S. Sinaj, R. Vandenberghe, and E. Frossard, “Effect of redox conditions on phosphate exchangeability and iron forms in a soil amended with ferrous iron,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 386–397, 2009.
@article{779578,
  abstract     = {{Application of iron (Fe) -rich amendments to soils has been proposed as a means of decreasing phosphorus (P) losses from soils. However, anoxic conditions following soil saturation are known to increase Fe and P solubility in soils, thus cancelling out the potential benefits. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of continuous oxic, continuous anoxic and alternating anoxic/oxic conditions on P exchangeability and Fe forms in soil amended with Ca(OH)(2) and FeSO(4). We incubated amended and unamended soils under these conditions for 8 weeks and measured Fe forms and P exchangeability. Under oxic conditions, addition of Ca(OH)(2) and FeSO(4) resulted in a strong decrease in P exchangeability and an increase in oxalate-extractable Fe. Mossbauer analyses suggested that an unidentified Fe oxide (D1oxide) with a strong sorbing capacity for P was precipitated. Under continuously anoxic conditions, P exchangeability and oxalate-extractable Fe increased with or without the amendments. Mossbauer analyses suggested that there was a partial dissolution of the D1oxide phase, precipitation of another unidentified Fe oxide (S3) and a reduction of structural Fe(3+) in phyllosilicate, thereby increasing soil negative charge. These transformations resulted in a strong increase in rapidly exchangeable P. Alternating anoxic and oxic periods induced the dissolution and precipitation of iron oxides and the increase and decrease in P exchangeability. Implications of the results for limiting P losses from grassland soils are discussed.}},
  author       = {{Schärer, M and De Grave, Eddy and Semalulu, O and Sinaj, S and Vandenberghe, Robert and Frossard, E}},
  issn         = {{1351-0754}},
  journal      = {{EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{TRANSFORMATION,DESORPTION,TERM,SORPTION,AVAILABILITY,PHOSPHORUS BEHAVIOR,FLOODED-DRAINED SOILS,MAIZE ROOT MUCILAGE,SOLUBILITY,ADSORPTION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{386--397}},
  title        = {{Effect of redox conditions on phosphate exchangeability and iron forms in a soil amended with ferrous iron}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.01135.x}},
  volume       = {{60}},
  year         = {{2009}},
}

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