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Adaptation and function of the bills of Darwin's finches: divergence by feeding type and sex

Anthony Herrel, Joris Soons, Peter Aerts UGent, Joris Dirckx, Matthieu Boone UGent, Patric Jacobs UGent, Dominique Adriaens UGent and Jeffrey Podos (2010) EMU. 110(1). p.39-47
abstract
Darwin's finches are a model system for studying adaptive diversification. However, despite the large body of work devoted to this system, rather little is known about the functional consequences of variation in the size and shape of bills. We test, using two methods, if natural or sexual selection, or both, has resulted in functional divergence in bill and head morphology. Firstly, we compare data on head-shape and bite-forces across nine species of Darwin's finches. Secondly, we use micro-CT scans and finite-element models to test the prediction that the shape of the bill in representatives of the different feeding types is adaptively related to use of the bill. Sexual dimorphism in head-shape and bite-force was detected, with females having longer bills than males for a given body size. Moreover, our results show strong differences in bill- and head-morphology between feeding types, with base-crushers having higher bite-forces and also relatively high bite-forces at the tip compared to probers and tip-biters. Finally, our finite-element models suggest that the shape of the bill in the tip-biters and base-crushers confers mechanical advantages by minimising stress in tip-loading and base-loading conditions, respectively, thus reducing probabilities of fracture. Our data support the contention that bill-shape is adaptive and evolves under selection for mechanical optimisation through natural selection on feeding mode.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
finite element modeling, bite force, bird., sexual dimorphism, FINITE-ELEMENT-ANALYSIS, BITE FORCE, BEAK SHAPE, EVOLUTION, POPULATION, MORPHOLOGY, SIZE, DIMORPHISM, SELECTION
journal title
EMU
Emu
volume
110
issue
1
pages
39 - 47
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000274851300006
JCR category
ORNITHOLOGY
JCR impact factor
1.191 (2010)
JCR rank
6/19 (2010)
JCR quartile
2 (2010)
ISSN
0158-4197
DOI
10.1071/MU09034
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
990057
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-990057
date created
2010-06-28 15:13:52
date last changed
2015-06-17 11:27:02
@article{990057,
  abstract     = {Darwin's finches are a model system for studying adaptive diversification. However, despite the large body of work devoted to this system, rather little is known about the functional consequences of variation in the size and shape of bills. We test, using two methods, if natural or sexual selection, or both, has resulted in functional divergence in bill and head morphology. Firstly, we compare data on head-shape and bite-forces across nine species of Darwin's finches. Secondly, we use micro-CT scans and finite-element models to test the prediction that the shape of the bill in representatives of the different feeding types is adaptively related to use of the bill. Sexual dimorphism in head-shape and bite-force was detected, with females having longer bills than males for a given body size. Moreover, our results show strong differences in bill- and head-morphology between feeding types, with base-crushers having higher bite-forces and also relatively high bite-forces at the tip compared to probers and tip-biters. Finally, our finite-element models suggest that the shape of the bill in the tip-biters and base-crushers confers mechanical advantages by minimising stress in tip-loading and base-loading conditions, respectively, thus reducing probabilities of fracture. Our data support the contention that bill-shape is adaptive and evolves under selection for mechanical optimisation through natural selection on feeding mode.},
  author       = {Herrel, Anthony and Soons, Joris and Aerts, Peter and Dirckx, Joris and Boone, Matthieu and Jacobs, Patric and Adriaens, Dominique and Podos, Jeffrey},
  issn         = {0158-4197},
  journal      = {EMU},
  keyword      = {finite element modeling,bite force,bird.,sexual dimorphism,FINITE-ELEMENT-ANALYSIS,BITE FORCE,BEAK SHAPE,EVOLUTION,POPULATION,MORPHOLOGY,SIZE,DIMORPHISM,SELECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {39--47},
  title        = {Adaptation and function of the bills of Darwin's finches: divergence by feeding type and sex},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU09034},
  volume       = {110},
  year         = {2010},
}

Chicago
Herrel, Anthony, Joris Soons, Peter Aerts, Joris Dirckx, Matthieu Boone, Patric Jacobs, Dominique Adriaens, and Jeffrey Podos. 2010. “Adaptation and Function of the Bills of Darwin’s Finches: Divergence by Feeding Type and Sex.” EMU 110 (1): 39–47.
APA
Herrel, A., Soons, J., Aerts, P., Dirckx, J., Boone, M., Jacobs, P., Adriaens, D., et al. (2010). Adaptation and function of the bills of Darwin’s finches: divergence by feeding type and sex. EMU, 110(1), 39–47.
Vancouver
1.
Herrel A, Soons J, Aerts P, Dirckx J, Boone M, Jacobs P, et al. Adaptation and function of the bills of Darwin’s finches: divergence by feeding type and sex. EMU. 2010;110(1):39–47.
MLA
Herrel, Anthony, Joris Soons, Peter Aerts, et al. “Adaptation and Function of the Bills of Darwin’s Finches: Divergence by Feeding Type and Sex.” EMU 110.1 (2010): 39–47. Print.