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SR-XRF analysis of fluid-inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South-Africa

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Abstract
The study of fluid inclusions within diamonds from different locations around the world gives important information on subduction processes (e. g. of oceanic lithosphere material) and the diamond growth. For this, cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein and Finsch mines were studied systematically at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at the beamlines ID18F and ID22. In addition, XANES measurements (at HASYLAB beamline L) and Raman Spectroscopy (at JWG University) were performed on the same inclusion suite to complete the identification of the inclusions. To avoid the loss of information when separating the solid part of the inclusion from the diamond host and releasing the gas and/or fluid content, dedicated measurement techniques must be applied to study these fluid inclusions “in-situ”. In this work, the experiment performed at ID22 to investigate very tiny fluid inclusions in a specially prepared Koffiefontein diamond (Kf07-4) is demonstrated. The application of the confocal XRF method appears to be essential to unambiguously retrieve information from within the diamond needle on the trace element and sub-micron level. In such way, the distribution of elements such as Cl, Br, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu could be studied in great detail. The extreme in-homogenous distribution of these elements in a single diamond was surprising. And whether this distribution indicates immiscibility during entrapment of the fluid phase or subsequent separation into a solid, fluid and probably gas phase during uplift of the diamond host remains speculative at the moment and is a matter of our ongoing measurements. These studies should also provide a standard reference for future investigations on fluid inclusions entrapped in “superdeep” diamonds from Kankan (Guinea) and Juina (Brazil).

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Chicago
Vekemans, Bart, Thorsten Pisternick, Tom Schoonjans, Frank Brenker, Anja Szymanski, Wout De Nolf, Koen Janssen, J Harris, Rémi Tucoulou, and Laszlo Vincze. 2008. “SR-XRF Analysis of Fluid-inclusions in Cloudy Diamonds from Koffiefontein, South-Africa.” In Book of Abstracts : EXRS-2008, European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry, ed. Stjepko Fazinić and Milko Jakšić, 101–101. Zagreb, Croatia: Ruđer Bošković Institute.
APA
Vekemans, B., Pisternick, T., Schoonjans, T., Brenker, F., Szymanski, A., De Nolf, W., Janssen, K., et al. (2008). SR-XRF analysis of fluid-inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South-Africa. In S. Fazinić & M. Jakšić (Eds.), Book of Abstracts : EXRS-2008, European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (pp. 101–101). Presented at the 13th European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (EXRS 2008), Zagreb, Croatia: Ruđer Bošković Institute.
Vancouver
1.
Vekemans B, Pisternick T, Schoonjans T, Brenker F, Szymanski A, De Nolf W, et al. SR-XRF analysis of fluid-inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South-Africa. In: Fazinić S, Jakšić M, editors. Book of Abstracts : EXRS-2008, European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry. Zagreb, Croatia: Ruđer Bošković Institute; 2008. p. 101–101.
MLA
Vekemans, Bart, Thorsten Pisternick, Tom Schoonjans, et al. “SR-XRF Analysis of Fluid-inclusions in Cloudy Diamonds from Koffiefontein, South-Africa.” Book of Abstracts : EXRS-2008, European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry. Ed. Stjepko Fazinić & Milko Jakšić. Zagreb, Croatia: Ruđer Bošković Institute, 2008. 101–101. Print.
@inproceedings{970238,
  abstract     = {The study of fluid inclusions within diamonds from different locations around the world gives important information on subduction processes (e. g. of oceanic lithosphere material) and the diamond growth. For this, cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein and Finsch mines were studied systematically at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at the beamlines ID18F and ID22. In addition, XANES measurements (at HASYLAB beamline L) and Raman Spectroscopy (at JWG University) were performed on the same inclusion suite to complete the identification of the inclusions.
To avoid the loss of information when separating the solid part of the inclusion from the diamond host and releasing the gas and/or fluid content, dedicated measurement techniques must be applied to study these fluid inclusions {\textquotedblleft}in-situ{\textquotedblright}. In this work, the experiment performed at ID22 to investigate very tiny fluid inclusions in a specially prepared Koffiefontein diamond (Kf07-4) is demonstrated. The application of the confocal XRF method appears to be essential to unambiguously retrieve information from within the diamond needle on the trace element and sub-micron level. In such way, the distribution of elements such as Cl, Br, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu could be studied in great detail. The extreme in-homogenous distribution of these elements in a single diamond was surprising. And whether this distribution indicates immiscibility during entrapment of the fluid phase or subsequent separation into a solid, fluid and probably gas phase during uplift of the diamond host remains speculative at the moment and is a matter of our ongoing measurements.
These studies should also provide a standard reference for future investigations on fluid inclusions entrapped in {\textquotedblleft}superdeep{\textquotedblright} diamonds from Kankan (Guinea) and Juina (Brazil).},
  author       = {Vekemans, Bart and Pisternick, Thorsten and Schoonjans, Tom and Brenker, Frank and Szymanski, Anja and De Nolf, Wout and Janssen, Koen and Harris, J and Tucoulou, R{\'e}mi and Vincze, Laszlo},
  booktitle    = {Book of Abstracts : EXRS-2008, European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry},
  editor       = {Fazini\'{c}, Stjepko and Jak\v{s}i\'{c}, Milko},
  isbn         = {9789536690732},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia},
  pages        = {101--101},
  publisher    = {Ru\unmatched{0111}er Bo\v{s}kovi\'{c} Institute},
  title        = {SR-XRF analysis of fluid-inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South-Africa},
  url          = {http://exrs2008.irb.hr/EXRS-BOA.pdf},
  year         = {2008},
}