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Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplements on cord blood hormones: a randomized controlled trial

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Abstract
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth improves in pregnant women who take daily maternal multiple micronutrients [United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP)] rather than iron and folic acid (IFA) alone. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether such an effect was mediated by changes in concentrations of cord hormones. DESIGN: In a double-blind, controlled trial carried out in Burkina Faso, we randomly assigned 1426 pregnant women to receive UNIMMAP or IFA supplements. We measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), leptin, insulin, free thyroxine, and cortisol in cord serum in a subsample of 294 live single newborns. We performed mediation analysis with an Aroian test. RESULTS: UNIMMAP supplementation had no significant effect on cord hormone concentrations. However, UNIMMAP supplementation significantly affected concentrations of IGF-I (+30%; 95% CI: 8%, 52%; P = 0.009) and leptin in male newborns. In these infants, 51.1% (P = 0.08) of the effect of UNIMMAP supplementation on birth weight was mediated through IGF-I, whereas for female newborns, this proportion was negligible. UNIMMAP supplementation also increased cortisol concentrations by 36% (P = 0.009) in cord blood in primiparae (P for interaction = 0.02). Growth-retarded babies had 41.2% lower IGF-I (P < 0.0001) and 27.3% lower leptin (P = 0.04) than did infants with normal growth. Offspring of primiparae had reduced IGF-I and insulin concentrations, and their cortisol concentrations were 25% higher (P = 0.05). Male newborns had lower concentrations of IGF-I, leptin, and insulin than did female newborns. CONCLUSIONS: UNIMMAP supplementation had sex-specific effects on cord IGF-I and leptin concentrations that were of unclear clinical significance. Other pathways may have been involved in the action of UNIMMAP on fetal growth. The specific hormonal pattern in primiparae could be related to constrained fetal growth. Confirmatory studies are warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00642408.
Keywords
RURAL NEPAL, GESTATIONAL-AGE, FACTOR-I, DOUBLE-BLIND, FETAL-GROWTH, LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT, INTRAUTERINE GROWTH-RETARDATION, Nutrition, Fetal growth retardation, Hormones, West-Africa, Cord blood, Pregnancy, IGF-I, ENDOCRINE REGULATION, HEMATOLOGIC STATUS

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Chicago
Roberfroid, Dominique, Lieven Huybregts, Hermann Lanou, Marie-Claire Henry, Nicolas Meda, and Patrick Kolsteren. 2010. “Effect of Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplements on Cord Blood Hormones: a Randomized Controlled Trial.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (6): 1649–1658.
APA
Roberfroid, D., Huybregts, L., Lanou, H., Henry, M.-C., Meda, N., & Kolsteren, P. (2010). Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplements on cord blood hormones: a randomized controlled trial. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 91(6), 1649–1658.
Vancouver
1.
Roberfroid D, Huybregts L, Lanou H, Henry M-C, Meda N, Kolsteren P. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplements on cord blood hormones: a randomized controlled trial. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2010;91(6):1649–58.
MLA
Roberfroid, Dominique, Lieven Huybregts, Hermann Lanou, et al. “Effect of Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplements on Cord Blood Hormones: a Randomized Controlled Trial.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 91.6 (2010): 1649–1658. Print.
@article{946365,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Fetal growth improves in pregnant women who take daily maternal multiple micronutrients [United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP)] rather than iron and folic acid (IFA) alone. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether such an effect was mediated by changes in concentrations of cord hormones. DESIGN: In a double-blind, controlled trial carried out in Burkina Faso, we randomly assigned 1426 pregnant women to receive UNIMMAP or IFA supplements. We measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), leptin, insulin, free thyroxine, and cortisol in cord serum in a subsample of 294 live single newborns. We performed mediation analysis with an Aroian test. RESULTS: UNIMMAP supplementation had no significant effect on cord hormone concentrations. However, UNIMMAP supplementation significantly affected concentrations of IGF-I (+30\%; 95\% CI: 8\%, 52\%; P = 0.009) and leptin in male newborns. In these infants, 51.1\% (P = 0.08) of the effect of UNIMMAP supplementation on birth weight was mediated through IGF-I, whereas for female newborns, this proportion was negligible. UNIMMAP supplementation also increased cortisol concentrations by 36\% (P = 0.009) in cord blood in primiparae (P for interaction = 0.02). Growth-retarded babies had 41.2\% lower IGF-I (P {\textlangle} 0.0001) and 27.3\% lower leptin (P = 0.04) than did infants with normal growth. Offspring of primiparae had reduced IGF-I and insulin concentrations, and their cortisol concentrations were 25\% higher (P = 0.05). Male newborns had lower concentrations of IGF-I, leptin, and insulin than did female newborns. CONCLUSIONS: UNIMMAP supplementation had sex-specific effects on cord IGF-I and leptin concentrations that were of unclear clinical significance. Other pathways may have been involved in the action of UNIMMAP on fetal growth. The specific hormonal pattern in primiparae could be related to constrained fetal growth. Confirmatory studies are warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00642408.},
  author       = {Roberfroid, Dominique and Huybregts, Lieven and Lanou, Hermann and Henry, Marie-Claire and Meda, Nicolas and Kolsteren, Patrick},
  issn         = {0002-9165},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1649--1658},
  title        = {Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplements on cord blood hormones: a randomized controlled trial},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28855},
  volume       = {91},
  year         = {2010},
}

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