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Characterisation of steroids in wooden crates of veal calves by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE (R)) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS)

Karolien Verheyden UGent, Herlinde Noppe UGent, Julie Vanden Bussche UGent, Klaas Wille UGent, Karen Bekaert UGent, Lieven De Boever UGent, Joris Van Acker UGent, Colin Janssen UGent, Hubert De Brabander UGent and Lynn Vanhaecke UGent (2010) ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. 397(1). p.345-355
abstract
Illegal steroid administration to enhance growth performance in veal calves has long been, and still is, a serious issue facing regulatory agencies. Over the last years, stating undisputable markers of illegal treatment has become complex because of the endogenous origin of several anabolic steroids. Knowledge on the origin of an analyte is therefore of paramount importance. The present study shows the presence of steroid analytes in wooden crates used for housing veal calves. For this purpose, an analytical procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE (R)), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS-MS) is developed for the characterisation of androstadienedione (ADD), boldenone (bBol), androstenedione (AED), beta-testosterone (bT), alpha-testosterone (aT), progesterone (P) and 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-P) in wood samples. In samples of wooden crates used for housing veal calves, ADD, AED, aT and P could be identified. Using the standard addition approach concentrations of these analytes were determined ranging from 20 +/- 4 ppb to 32 +/- 4 ppb for ADD, from 19 +/- 5 ppb to 44 +/- 17 ppb for AED, from 11 +/- 6 ppb to 30 +/- 2 ppb for aT and from 14 +/- 1 ppb to 42 +/- 27 ppb for P, depending on the sample type. As exposure of veal calves to steroid hormones in their housing facilities might complicate decision-making on illegal hormone administration, inequitable slaughter of animals remains possible. Therefore, complete prohibition of wooden calf accommodation should be considered.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
HORMONES, BOLDENONE, FECES, BEEF-CATTLE, BOVINE URINE, Wood, Liquid chromatography, Solid-phase extraction (SPE), Mass spectrometry, Steroid analytes, MEAT-PRODUCING ANIMALS, HOUSING CONDITIONS, PAPER-MILL EFFLUENT, Pressurised liquid extraction, ANABOLIC-STEROIDS, KIDNEY FAT
journal title
ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
volume
397
issue
1
pages
345 - 355
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000276738800037
JCR category
CHEMISTRY, ANALYTICAL
JCR impact factor
3.841 (2010)
JCR rank
9/71 (2010)
JCR quartile
1 (2010)
ISSN
1618-2642
DOI
10.1007/s00216-010-3462-9
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
941112
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-941112
date created
2010-05-03 08:18:33
date last changed
2010-06-24 11:50:39
@article{941112,
  abstract     = {Illegal steroid administration to enhance growth performance in veal calves has long been, and still is, a serious issue facing regulatory agencies. Over the last years, stating undisputable markers of illegal treatment has become complex because of the endogenous origin of several anabolic steroids. Knowledge on the origin of an analyte is therefore of paramount importance. The present study shows the presence of steroid analytes in wooden crates used for housing veal calves. For this purpose, an analytical procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE (R)), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS-MS) is developed for the characterisation of androstadienedione (ADD), boldenone (bBol), androstenedione (AED), beta-testosterone (bT), alpha-testosterone (aT), progesterone (P) and 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-P) in wood samples. In samples of wooden crates used for housing veal calves, ADD, AED, aT and P could be identified. Using the standard addition approach concentrations of these analytes were determined ranging from 20 +/- 4 ppb to 32 +/- 4 ppb for ADD, from 19 +/- 5 ppb to 44 +/- 17 ppb for AED, from 11 +/- 6 ppb to 30 +/- 2 ppb for aT and from 14 +/- 1 ppb to 42 +/- 27 ppb for P, depending on the sample type. As exposure of veal calves to steroid hormones in their housing facilities might complicate decision-making on illegal hormone administration, inequitable slaughter of animals remains possible. Therefore, complete prohibition of wooden calf accommodation should be considered.},
  author       = {Verheyden, Karolien and Noppe, Herlinde and Vanden Bussche, Julie and Wille, Klaas and Bekaert, Karen and De Boever, Lieven and Van Acker, Joris and Janssen, Colin and De Brabander, Hubert and Vanhaecke, Lynn},
  issn         = {1618-2642},
  journal      = {ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY},
  keyword      = {HORMONES,BOLDENONE,FECES,BEEF-CATTLE,BOVINE URINE,Wood,Liquid chromatography,Solid-phase extraction (SPE),Mass spectrometry,Steroid analytes,MEAT-PRODUCING ANIMALS,HOUSING CONDITIONS,PAPER-MILL EFFLUENT,Pressurised liquid extraction,ANABOLIC-STEROIDS,KIDNEY FAT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {345--355},
  title        = {Characterisation of steroids in wooden crates of veal calves by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE (R)) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-3462-9},
  volume       = {397},
  year         = {2010},
}

Chicago
Verheyden, Karolien, Herlinde Noppe, Julie Vanden Bussche, Klaas Wille, Karen Bekaert, Lieven De Boever, Joris Van Acker, Colin Janssen, Hubert De Brabander, and Lynn Vanhaecke. 2010. “Characterisation of Steroids in Wooden Crates of Veal Calves by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE (R)) and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS).” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 397 (1): 345–355.
APA
Verheyden, K., Noppe, H., Vanden Bussche, J., Wille, K., Bekaert, K., De Boever, L., Van Acker, J., et al. (2010). Characterisation of steroids in wooden crates of veal calves by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE (R)) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS). ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 397(1), 345–355.
Vancouver
1.
Verheyden K, Noppe H, Vanden Bussche J, Wille K, Bekaert K, De Boever L, et al. Characterisation of steroids in wooden crates of veal calves by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE (R)) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS). ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. 2010;397(1):345–55.
MLA
Verheyden, Karolien, Herlinde Noppe, Julie Vanden Bussche, et al. “Characterisation of Steroids in Wooden Crates of Veal Calves by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE (R)) and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS).” ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 397.1 (2010): 345–355. Print.