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Effects of milk replacer formulation on measures of mammary growth and composition in Holstein heifers

(2009) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 92(12). p.5937-5950
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Abstract
Overfeeding prepubertal heifers may impair mammary parenchymal growth and reduce milk production, but evidence suggests that increased intake of a high-protein milk replacer before weaning may be beneficial. This study was designed to evaluate effects of milk replacer (MR) composition on mass and composition of mammary parenchyma and fat pad, growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis gene expression, and putative mammary epithelial stem cells. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive effects of faster rates of gain during the preweaning period alter the development, persistence, or activity of populations of putative mammary epithelial stem cells, possibly through involvement of GH/IGF-I axis molecules. Twenty-four newborn heifers were fed 1 of 4 MR diets (n = 6/diet): control [20% crude protein (CP), 21% fat MR fed at 441 g of dry matter (DM)/d], high protein, low fat (28% CP, 20% fat MR fed at 951 g of DM/d), high protein, high fat (27% CP, 28% fat MR fed at 951 g of DM/d), and high protein, high fat+ (27% CP, 28% fat MR fed at 1,431 g of DM/d). Water and starter (20% CP, 1.43% fat) were offered ad libitum. Animals were killed on d 65 and mammary tissue was subjected to biochemical, molecular, and histological examination. No differences in mammary parenchymal mass or composition, with or without adjusting for empty body weight, were detected. Mass was increased and composition of the mammary fat pad was altered by nutrient intake. No diet differences in putative mammary epithelial stem cell abundance or abundance of transcripts for genes of the GH/IGF-I axis were detected. In this study, growth of the mammary epithelium, size of the mammary epithelial stem cell population, and components of the GH/IGF-I axis did not depend on diet. However, an underlying positive correlation between telomerase, a marker of mammary stem cells, and growth of the mammary parenchyma was detected. Implications of diet-induced effects on mammary fat pad and possible effects on subsequent development and function remain to be determined.
Keywords
PREPUBERTAL HEIFERS, GLAND, MITOGENIC ACTIVITY, DAIRY HEIFERS, stem cell, CELL-PROLIFERATION, EXTRACTS, prepubertal heifer, NUTRITIONAL REGULATION, mammary gland, STEM-CELLS, milk replacer, FAT PAD, EXPRESSION

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Chicago
Daniels, KM, Anthony Capuco, ML McGilliard, RE James, and RM Akers. 2009. “Effects of Milk Replacer Formulation on Measures of Mammary Growth and Composition in Holstein Heifers.” Journal of Dairy Science 92 (12): 5937–5950.
APA
Daniels, K., Capuco, A., McGilliard, M., James, R., & Akers, R. (2009). Effects of milk replacer formulation on measures of mammary growth and composition in Holstein heifers. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 92(12), 5937–5950.
Vancouver
1.
Daniels K, Capuco A, McGilliard M, James R, Akers R. Effects of milk replacer formulation on measures of mammary growth and composition in Holstein heifers. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. CHAMPAIGN, IL (USA): AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC-ADSA; 2009;92(12):5937–50.
MLA
Daniels, KM, Anthony Capuco, ML McGilliard, et al. “Effects of Milk Replacer Formulation on Measures of Mammary Growth and Composition in Holstein Heifers.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 92.12 (2009): 5937–5950. Print.
@article{931671,
  abstract     = {Overfeeding prepubertal heifers may impair mammary parenchymal growth and reduce milk production, but evidence suggests that increased intake of a high-protein milk replacer before weaning may be beneficial. This study was designed to evaluate effects of milk replacer (MR) composition on mass and composition of mammary parenchyma and fat pad, growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis gene expression, and putative mammary epithelial stem cells. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive effects of faster rates of gain during the preweaning period alter the development, persistence, or activity of populations of putative mammary epithelial stem cells, possibly through involvement of GH/IGF-I axis molecules. Twenty-four newborn heifers were fed 1 of 4 MR diets (n = 6/diet): control [20\% crude protein (CP), 21\% fat MR fed at 441 g of dry matter (DM)/d], high protein, low fat (28\% CP, 20\% fat MR fed at 951 g of DM/d), high protein, high fat (27\% CP, 28\% fat MR fed at 951 g of DM/d), and high protein, high fat+ (27\% CP, 28\% fat MR fed at 1,431 g of DM/d). Water and starter (20\% CP, 1.43\% fat) were offered ad libitum. Animals were killed on d 65 and mammary tissue was subjected to biochemical, molecular, and histological examination. No differences in mammary parenchymal mass or composition, with or without adjusting for empty body weight, were detected. Mass was increased and composition of the mammary fat pad was altered by nutrient intake. No diet differences in putative mammary epithelial stem cell abundance or abundance of transcripts for genes of the GH/IGF-I axis were detected. In this study, growth of the mammary epithelium, size of the mammary epithelial stem cell population, and components of the GH/IGF-I axis did not depend on diet. However, an underlying positive correlation between telomerase, a marker of mammary stem cells, and growth of the mammary parenchyma was detected. Implications of diet-induced effects on mammary fat pad and possible effects on subsequent development and function remain to be determined.},
  author       = {Daniels, KM and Capuco, Anthony and McGilliard, ML and James, RE and Akers, RM},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {PREPUBERTAL HEIFERS,GLAND,MITOGENIC ACTIVITY,DAIRY HEIFERS,stem cell,CELL-PROLIFERATION,EXTRACTS,prepubertal heifer,NUTRITIONAL REGULATION,mammary gland,STEM-CELLS,milk replacer,FAT PAD,EXPRESSION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {5937--5950},
  publisher    = {AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC-ADSA},
  title        = {Effects of milk replacer formulation on measures of mammary growth and composition in Holstein heifers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1959},
  volume       = {92},
  year         = {2009},
}

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