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Physics process level discrimination of detections for GATE: assessment of contamination in SPECT and spurious activity in PET

Jan De Beenhouwer (UGent) , Steven Staelens (UGent) , Stefaan Vandenberghe (UGent) , Jeroen Verhaeghe (UGent) , Roel Van Holen (UGent) , Erwann Rault (UGent) and Ignace Lemahieu (UGent)
(2009) MEDICAL PHYSICS. 36(4). p.053-1060
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Abstract
The GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) is one of the most detailed Monte Carlo simulation tools for SPECT and PET. It allows for realistic phantoms, complex decay schemes, and a large variety of detector geometries. However, only a fraction of the information in each particle history is available for postprocessing. In order to extend the analysis capabilities of GATE, a flexible framework was developed. This framework allows all detected events to be subdivided according to their type: In PET, true coincidences from others, and in SPECT, geometrically collimated photons from others. The framework of the authors can be applied to any isotope, phantom, and detector geometry available in GATE. It is designed to enhance the usability of GATE for the study of contamination and for the investigation of the properties of current and future prototype detectors. The authors apply the framework to a case study of Bexxar, first assuming labeling with I-124, then with I-131. It is shown that with I-124 PET, results with an optimized window improve upon those with the standard window but achieve less than half of the ideal improvement. Nevertheless, I-124 PET shows improved resolution compared to I-131 SPECT with triple-energy-window scatter correction.
Keywords
phantoms, positron emission tomography, particle detectors, biological effects of radiation, Monte Carlo methods, single photon emission computed tomography, MONTE-CARLO, SIMULATION PLATFORM, 3D PET, EMISSION, RECONSTRUCTION, TOOLKIT, CAMERA

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Chicago
De Beenhouwer, Jan, Steven Staelens, Stefaan Vandenberghe, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Roel Van Holen, Erwann Rault, and Ignace Lemahieu. 2009. “Physics Process Level Discrimination of Detections for GATE: Assessment of Contamination in SPECT and Spurious Activity in PET.” Medical Physics 36 (4): 053–1060.
APA
De Beenhouwer, J., Staelens, S., Vandenberghe, S., Verhaeghe, J., Van Holen, R., Rault, E., & Lemahieu, I. (2009). Physics process level discrimination of detections for GATE: assessment of contamination in SPECT and spurious activity in PET. MEDICAL PHYSICS, 36(4), 053–1060.
Vancouver
1.
De Beenhouwer J, Staelens S, Vandenberghe S, Verhaeghe J, Van Holen R, Rault E, et al. Physics process level discrimination of detections for GATE: assessment of contamination in SPECT and spurious activity in PET. MEDICAL PHYSICS. 2009;36(4):053–1060.
MLA
De Beenhouwer, Jan, Steven Staelens, Stefaan Vandenberghe, et al. “Physics Process Level Discrimination of Detections for GATE: Assessment of Contamination in SPECT and Spurious Activity in PET.” MEDICAL PHYSICS 36.4 (2009): 053–1060. Print.
@article{906010,
  abstract     = {The GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) is one of the most detailed Monte Carlo simulation tools for SPECT and PET. It allows for realistic phantoms, complex decay schemes, and a large variety of detector geometries. However, only a fraction of the information in each particle history is available for postprocessing. In order to extend the analysis capabilities of GATE, a flexible framework was developed. This framework allows all detected events to be subdivided according to their type: In PET, true coincidences from others, and in SPECT, geometrically collimated photons from others. The framework of the authors can be applied to any isotope, phantom, and detector geometry available in GATE. It is designed to enhance the usability of GATE for the study of contamination and for the investigation of the properties of current and future prototype detectors. The authors apply the framework to a case study of Bexxar, first assuming labeling with I-124, then with I-131. It is shown that with I-124 PET, results with an optimized window improve upon those with the standard window but achieve less than half of the ideal improvement. Nevertheless, I-124 PET shows improved resolution compared to I-131 SPECT with triple-energy-window scatter correction.},
  author       = {De Beenhouwer, Jan and Staelens, Steven and Vandenberghe, Stefaan and Verhaeghe, Jeroen and Van Holen, Roel and Rault, Erwann and Lemahieu, Ignace},
  issn         = {0094-2405},
  journal      = {MEDICAL PHYSICS},
  keyword      = {phantoms,positron emission tomography,particle detectors,biological effects of radiation,Monte Carlo methods,single photon emission computed tomography,MONTE-CARLO,SIMULATION PLATFORM,3D PET,EMISSION,RECONSTRUCTION,TOOLKIT,CAMERA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {053--1060},
  title        = {Physics process level discrimination of detections for GATE: assessment of contamination in SPECT and spurious activity in PET},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.3078045},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2009},
}

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