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Victimization of applicants for international protection residing in Belgium : sexual violence and help-seeking behavior

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Abstract
Background: Sexual violence (SV) literature on applicants for international protection (AIPs) shows that they are at high risk of victimization. The study objectives are to provide an exploratory overview of the occurrence of SV in AIPs in Belgium and their help-seeking behavior (HSB). This overview is crucial to develop prevention strategies and care paths focusing on providing adequate care to AIP SV victims in Belgium. Methods: Quantitative data from structured interviews with AIPs (n = 62) triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with AIP SV victims (n = 11) served to explore the nature and impact of SV in AIPs in Belgium and their HSB. Results: A total of 83.9% of respondents have experienced SV. A total of 61.3% were victimized within the past year. Victimization seems more gender-balanced than in the general population. AIPs link SV to their legal status and their associated vulnerable situation. HSB upon SV was very limited in this sample. Help-seeking barriers interfering with the decision-making process to consult (in)formal resources were identified. Conclusions: AIPs in Belgium are at high risk of SV. Despite the impact of SV on AIPs’ lives, HSB upon SV is rare. The provision of age-appropriate sexual education and development of policies that will reduce help-seeking barriers is needed
Keywords
sexual and gender-based violence, migrants, refugees, asylum seekers, Europe, prevalence, Belgium

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MLA
De Schrijver, Lotte, et al. “Victimization of Applicants for International Protection Residing in Belgium : Sexual Violence and Help-Seeking Behavior.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 19, no. 19, 2022, doi:10.3390/ijerph191912889.
APA
De Schrijver, L., Nobels, A., Harb, J., Nisen, L., Roelens, K., Vander Beken, T., … Keygnaert, I. (2022). Victimization of applicants for international protection residing in Belgium : sexual violence and help-seeking behavior. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 19(19). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912889
Chicago author-date
De Schrijver, Lotte, Anne Nobels, Jonathan Harb, Laurent Nisen, Kristien Roelens, Tom Vander Beken, Christophe Vandeviver, and Ines Keygnaert. 2022. “Victimization of Applicants for International Protection Residing in Belgium : Sexual Violence and Help-Seeking Behavior.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 19 (19). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912889.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Schrijver, Lotte, Anne Nobels, Jonathan Harb, Laurent Nisen, Kristien Roelens, Tom Vander Beken, Christophe Vandeviver, and Ines Keygnaert. 2022. “Victimization of Applicants for International Protection Residing in Belgium : Sexual Violence and Help-Seeking Behavior.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH 19 (19). doi:10.3390/ijerph191912889.
Vancouver
1.
De Schrijver L, Nobels A, Harb J, Nisen L, Roelens K, Vander Beken T, et al. Victimization of applicants for international protection residing in Belgium : sexual violence and help-seeking behavior. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 2022;19(19).
IEEE
[1]
L. De Schrijver et al., “Victimization of applicants for international protection residing in Belgium : sexual violence and help-seeking behavior,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 19, no. 19, 2022.
@article{8769363,
  abstract     = {{Background: Sexual violence (SV) literature on applicants for international protection (AIPs) shows that they are at high risk of victimization. The study objectives are to provide an exploratory overview of the occurrence of SV in AIPs in Belgium and their help-seeking behavior (HSB). This overview is crucial to develop prevention strategies and care paths focusing on providing adequate care to AIP SV victims in Belgium. Methods: Quantitative data from structured interviews with AIPs (n = 62) triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with AIP SV victims (n = 11) served to explore the nature and impact of SV in AIPs in Belgium and their HSB. Results: A total of 83.9% of respondents have experienced SV. A total of 61.3% were victimized within the past year. Victimization seems more gender-balanced than in the general population. AIPs link SV to their legal status and their associated vulnerable situation. HSB upon SV was very limited in this sample. Help-seeking barriers interfering with the decision-making process to consult (in)formal resources were identified. Conclusions: AIPs in Belgium are at high risk of SV. Despite the impact of SV on AIPs’ lives, HSB upon SV is rare. The provision of age-appropriate sexual education and development of policies that will reduce help-seeking barriers is needed}},
  articleno    = {{12889}},
  author       = {{De Schrijver, Lotte and Nobels, Anne and Harb, Jonathan and Nisen, Laurent and Roelens, Kristien and Vander Beken, Tom and Vandeviver, Christophe and Keygnaert, Ines}},
  issn         = {{1660-4601}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH}},
  keywords     = {{sexual and gender-based violence,migrants,refugees,asylum seekers,Europe,prevalence,Belgium}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{19}},
  pages        = {{24}},
  title        = {{Victimization of applicants for international protection residing in Belgium : sexual violence and help-seeking behavior}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912889}},
  volume       = {{19}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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