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A 4 x 4 millimeterwave-frequency Butler matrix in grounded co-planar waveguide technology for compact integration with 5G antenna arrays

Laura Van Messem (UGent) , Arno Moerman (UGent) , Olivier Caytan (UGent) , Igor Lima de Paula (UGent) , Bram Hoflack (UGent) , Bram Stroobandt (UGent) , Sam Lemey (UGent) , Marc Moeneclaey (UGent) and Hendrik Rogier (UGent)
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Abstract
This article presents a novel 4 Chi 4 Butler matrix implemented in the grounded co-planar waveguide (GCPW) technology, compactly integrated with a highly efficient and broadband 1 Chi 4 air-filled substrate integrated waveguide (AFSIW) cavity-backed patch antenna array (AA), giving rise to a broad operational frequency range [23.75, 31 GHz] (26.5%) covering the n257, n258, and n261 fifth-generation (5G) bands. Three novel quadrature hybrid couplers and two crossovers are designed and compared to obtain the optimal building blocks for the Butler matrix. Within each of the supported 5G bands, the measured excess insertion loss of the optimized Butler matrix remains smaller than 3.5dB with a maximal amplitude imbalance of +/- 0.9dB. Isolation between input ports is higher than 16.4dB. A maximal measured realized gain of 12.3dBi is obtained for the Butler matrix with integrated 1 Chi 4 AA while ensuring a -3-dB beamwidth coverage of 110 degrees. The main beamsteering directions of [-40 degrees, -14 degrees, 14 degrees, 40 degrees] exhibit measured deviations that stay within +/- 3 degrees. The fabricated Butler matrix with AA features a very compact footprint of 21.4 mm Chi 46.0 mm Chi 2 mm [2 lambda(0) x 4.3 lambda(0) x 0.2 lambda(0)].
Keywords
BAND, COUPLERS, Beamforming, Butler matrix, crossover, fifth generation (5G), grounded, co-planar waveguide (GCPW), hybrid coupler, millimeterwave (mmWave), multilayer printed circuit board (PCB), size, weight, power, cost, (SWaP-C)

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Citation

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MLA
Van Messem, Laura, et al. “A 4 x 4 Millimeterwave-Frequency Butler Matrix in Grounded Co-Planar Waveguide Technology for Compact Integration with 5G Antenna Arrays.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, vol. 71, no. 1, 2023, pp. 122–34, doi:10.1109/TMTT.2022.3178073.
APA
Van Messem, L., Moerman, A., Caytan, O., Lima de Paula, I., Hoflack, B., Stroobandt, B., … Rogier, H. (2023). A 4 x 4 millimeterwave-frequency Butler matrix in grounded co-planar waveguide technology for compact integration with 5G antenna arrays. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, 71(1), 122–134. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2022.3178073
Chicago author-date
Van Messem, Laura, Arno Moerman, Olivier Caytan, Igor Lima de Paula, Bram Hoflack, Bram Stroobandt, Sam Lemey, Marc Moeneclaey, and Hendrik Rogier. 2023. “A 4 x 4 Millimeterwave-Frequency Butler Matrix in Grounded Co-Planar Waveguide Technology for Compact Integration with 5G Antenna Arrays.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 71 (1): 122–34. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2022.3178073.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Messem, Laura, Arno Moerman, Olivier Caytan, Igor Lima de Paula, Bram Hoflack, Bram Stroobandt, Sam Lemey, Marc Moeneclaey, and Hendrik Rogier. 2023. “A 4 x 4 Millimeterwave-Frequency Butler Matrix in Grounded Co-Planar Waveguide Technology for Compact Integration with 5G Antenna Arrays.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 71 (1): 122–134. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2022.3178073.
Vancouver
1.
Van Messem L, Moerman A, Caytan O, Lima de Paula I, Hoflack B, Stroobandt B, et al. A 4 x 4 millimeterwave-frequency Butler matrix in grounded co-planar waveguide technology for compact integration with 5G antenna arrays. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES. 2023;71(1):122–34.
IEEE
[1]
L. Van Messem et al., “A 4 x 4 millimeterwave-frequency Butler matrix in grounded co-planar waveguide technology for compact integration with 5G antenna arrays,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 122–134, 2023.
@article{8762089,
  abstract     = {{This article presents a novel 4 Chi 4 Butler matrix implemented in the grounded co-planar waveguide (GCPW) technology, compactly integrated with a highly efficient and broadband 1 Chi 4 air-filled substrate integrated waveguide (AFSIW) cavity-backed patch antenna array (AA), giving rise to a broad operational frequency range [23.75, 31 GHz] (26.5%) covering the n257, n258, and n261 fifth-generation (5G) bands. Three novel quadrature hybrid couplers and two crossovers are designed and compared to obtain the optimal building blocks for the Butler matrix. Within each of the supported 5G bands, the measured excess insertion loss of the optimized Butler matrix remains smaller than 3.5dB with a maximal amplitude imbalance of +/- 0.9dB. Isolation between input ports is higher than 16.4dB. A maximal measured realized gain of 12.3dBi is obtained for the Butler matrix with integrated 1 Chi 4 AA while ensuring a -3-dB beamwidth coverage of 110 degrees. The main beamsteering directions of [-40 degrees, -14 degrees, 14 degrees, 40 degrees] exhibit measured deviations that stay within +/- 3 degrees. The fabricated Butler matrix with AA features a very compact footprint of 21.4 mm Chi 46.0 mm Chi 2 mm [2 lambda(0) x 4.3 lambda(0) x 0.2 lambda(0)].}},
  author       = {{Van Messem, Laura and Moerman, Arno and Caytan, Olivier and Lima de Paula, Igor and Hoflack, Bram and Stroobandt, Bram and Lemey, Sam and Moeneclaey, Marc and Rogier, Hendrik}},
  issn         = {{0018-9480}},
  journal      = {{IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES}},
  keywords     = {{BAND,COUPLERS,Beamforming,Butler matrix,crossover,fifth generation (5G),grounded,co-planar waveguide (GCPW),hybrid coupler,millimeterwave (mmWave),multilayer printed circuit board (PCB),size,weight,power,cost,(SWaP-C)}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{122--134}},
  title        = {{A 4 x 4 millimeterwave-frequency Butler matrix in grounded co-planar waveguide technology for compact integration with 5G antenna arrays}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2022.3178073}},
  volume       = {{71}},
  year         = {{2023}},
}

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