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Ion migration in LiREF4 nanoparticles

Mirijam Lederer (UGent) , Hannes Rijckaert (UGent) and Anna Kaczmarek (UGent)
(2022)
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Abstract
Lanthanide doped rare earth fluoride (LnREF4) luminescence nanoparticles are frequently grown in core-shell geometries. In order to avoid environmental quenching an inert shell is grown around a Ln3+-doped core, meaning that no emitting ions such as Yb3+ or Er3+ are present on the surface of the nanoparticles. Some works [1,2] suggest that in NaYF4 host nanoparticles some, but limited, ion migration is present, leading to emissive lanthanide ions migrating to the theoretically inert shell. In Li+ containing host materials such as lanthanide doped LiLuF4, LiYF4 and LiGdF4 it has recently been reported that significant ion migration takes place. This is a great issue for their application as it disturbs their desired core-shell geometry. However, ways to overcome the issue of ion migration was not further investiated [3,4]. Here, we present direct evidence that ion migration in both lanthanide doped LiLuF4 (Fig. 1(a)) and LiYF4 (Fig. 1(c)) nanoparticles is more pronounced than in lanthanide doped NaYF4 nanoparticles and suggests that Li+ containing matrices are more prone to ion migration than Na+ containing hosts. The solution presented here is to grow a heterogeneous core-shell geometry such as Ln:LiLuF4@LiYF4 or Ln:LiYF4@LiLuF4 (Fig. 1(b)) which as observed hinders ion migration significantly. Indicated in Fig. 1(b) are the core (red arrow) and the shell(blue arrow), showing sufficiently supressed ion migration. This observation was veryfied also in high temperature thermometry emission mapping.
Keywords
ion migration, lanthanides

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MLA
Lederer, Mirijam, et al. Ion Migration in LiREF4 Nanoparticles. 2022.
APA
Lederer, M., Rijckaert, H., & Kaczmarek, A. (2022). Ion migration in LiREF4 nanoparticles. Presented at the ICOOPMA-EuroDIM 2022, Ghent, Belgium.
Chicago author-date
Lederer, Mirijam, Hannes Rijckaert, and Anna Kaczmarek. 2022. “Ion Migration in LiREF4 Nanoparticles.” In .
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lederer, Mirijam, Hannes Rijckaert, and Anna Kaczmarek. 2022. “Ion Migration in LiREF4 Nanoparticles.” In .
Vancouver
1.
Lederer M, Rijckaert H, Kaczmarek A. Ion migration in LiREF4 nanoparticles. In 2022.
IEEE
[1]
M. Lederer, H. Rijckaert, and A. Kaczmarek, “Ion migration in LiREF4 nanoparticles,” presented at the ICOOPMA-EuroDIM 2022, Ghent, Belgium, 2022.
@inproceedings{8761287,
  abstract     = {{Lanthanide doped rare earth fluoride (LnREF4) luminescence nanoparticles are frequently grown in core-shell geometries. In order to avoid environmental quenching an inert shell is grown around a Ln3+-doped core, meaning that no emitting ions such as Yb3+ or Er3+ are present on the surface of the nanoparticles.
Some works [1,2] suggest that in NaYF4 host nanoparticles some, but limited, ion migration is present, leading to emissive lanthanide ions migrating to the theoretically inert shell. In Li+ containing host materials such as lanthanide doped LiLuF4, LiYF4 and LiGdF4 it has recently been reported that significant ion migration takes place. This is a great issue for their application as it disturbs their desired core-shell geometry. However, ways to overcome the issue of ion migration was not further investiated [3,4]. 
Here, we present direct evidence that ion migration in both lanthanide doped LiLuF4 (Fig. 1(a)) and LiYF4 (Fig. 1(c)) nanoparticles is more pronounced than in lanthanide doped NaYF4 nanoparticles and suggests that Li+ containing matrices are more prone to ion migration than Na+ containing hosts. The solution presented here is to grow a heterogeneous core-shell geometry such as Ln:LiLuF4@LiYF4 or Ln:LiYF4@LiLuF4 (Fig. 1(b)) which as observed hinders ion migration significantly. Indicated in Fig. 1(b) are the core (red arrow) and the shell(blue arrow), showing sufficiently supressed ion migration. This observation was veryfied also in high temperature thermometry emission mapping.}},
  author       = {{Lederer, Mirijam and Rijckaert, Hannes and Kaczmarek, Anna}},
  keywords     = {{ion migration,lanthanides}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  location     = {{Ghent, Belgium}},
  title        = {{Ion migration in LiREF4 nanoparticles}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}