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Implications of COVID-19 on the US container port distribution system : import cargo routing by Walmart and Nike

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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implications of COVID-19 on container import flows via the US port distribution system. We employ statistics collected for more than 21 US ports and for more than 550,000 container shipments by Walmart and Nike to identify trends and potential shifts in the US port distribution system. Results unveil different changes in distribution channels during the pandemic era, between aggregated port level and industry level. These differences are specific to firms and could be explained by the origin of flows, carrier selection to transport cargos and US port/inland distribution systems. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the different role played by ports for industries (retailers, footwear and apparel) and shows that the ability to adapt supply chains to a major disruption remains subject to the initial choices on the location of production, on carrier choices and on port/inland distribution networks.
Keywords
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES, SHIPPING LINES, CHOICE, RESILIENCE, DISRUPTION, MODEL, EXPLORATION, CONGESTION, STRATEGIES, EVOLUTION, COVID-19, port system, inland distribution, sourcing, disruption, retailer

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MLA
Cariou, Pierre, and Theo Notteboom. “Implications of COVID-19 on the US Container Port Distribution System : Import Cargo Routing by Walmart and Nike.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, 2022, pp. 1–20, doi:10.1080/13675567.2022.2088708.
APA
Cariou, P., & Notteboom, T. (2022). Implications of COVID-19 on the US container port distribution system : import cargo routing by Walmart and Nike. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13675567.2022.2088708
Chicago author-date
Cariou, Pierre, and Theo Notteboom. 2022. “Implications of COVID-19 on the US Container Port Distribution System : Import Cargo Routing by Walmart and Nike.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13675567.2022.2088708.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cariou, Pierre, and Theo Notteboom. 2022. “Implications of COVID-19 on the US Container Port Distribution System : Import Cargo Routing by Walmart and Nike.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS: 1–20. doi:10.1080/13675567.2022.2088708.
Vancouver
1.
Cariou P, Notteboom T. Implications of COVID-19 on the US container port distribution system : import cargo routing by Walmart and Nike. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS. 2022;1–20.
IEEE
[1]
P. Cariou and T. Notteboom, “Implications of COVID-19 on the US container port distribution system : import cargo routing by Walmart and Nike,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, pp. 1–20, 2022.
@article{8756984,
  abstract     = {{The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implications of COVID-19 on container import flows via the US port distribution system. We employ statistics collected for more than 21 US ports and for more than 550,000 container shipments by Walmart and Nike to identify trends and potential shifts in the US port distribution system. Results unveil different changes in distribution channels during the pandemic era, between aggregated port level and industry level. These differences are specific to firms and could be explained by the origin of flows, carrier selection to transport cargos and US port/inland distribution systems. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the different role played by ports for industries (retailers, footwear and apparel) and shows that the ability to adapt supply chains to a major disruption remains subject to the initial choices on the location of production, on carrier choices and on port/inland distribution networks.}},
  author       = {{Cariou, Pierre and Notteboom, Theo}},
  issn         = {{1367-5567}},
  journal      = {{INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LOGISTICS-RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS}},
  keywords     = {{ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES,SHIPPING LINES,CHOICE,RESILIENCE,DISRUPTION,MODEL,EXPLORATION,CONGESTION,STRATEGIES,EVOLUTION,COVID-19,port system,inland distribution,sourcing,disruption,retailer}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{1--20}},
  title        = {{Implications of COVID-19 on the US container port distribution system : import cargo routing by Walmart and Nike}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13675567.2022.2088708}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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