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Depositional history of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, equatorial East Africa) from high-resolution seismic stratigraphy

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Abstract
Sediments deposited in Lake Chala (Kenya/Tanzania) constitute a high-resolution archive of past climate and environmental change in equatorial East Africa spanning two glacial-interglacial cycles. To correctly interpret the proxy records it contains, it is crucial to understand the evolution of lacustrine sedimentation in this volcanic crater basin. Building on previous seismic stratigraphic analysis by Moernaut et al. (2010) of a dense grid of 37 km high-resolution seismic reflection profiles with up to 270 ms two-way travel time (ca. 210 m depth) of sub-bottom penetration, this study presents a seismic-based reconstruction of the complete depositional history of Lake Chala as well as a first-order age model for the major documented stages in lake evolution. The seismic stratigraphic sequence comprises 16 distinct and finely-stratified units (U1-U16, youngest to oldest), grouped into five major depositional stages. Stage I (U16, ca. 249-212 ka) marks the initiation of sedimentation in an originally ring-shaped depositional area surrounding two central tuff cones emerging from the basin floor. Stage II (U15-U12, ca. 212-114 ka) represents the onset of basinwide sedimentation above the tuff cones, implying a gradual rise in lake depth and shift to more strictly hemipelagic sedimentation. Stage III (U11-U8, ca. 114-97 ka) represents the development of a relatively flat lake floor during a period of significantly reduced lake depth. Stage IV (U7-U4, ca. 97-20.5 ka) is again characterized by largely undisturbed hemipelagic sedimentation under mostly high lake-depth conditions. Stage V (U3-U1, 20.5 ka BP to Present) represents the establishment of the present-day, very broad and flat basin floor under fluctuating lake level. Reassessing the Moernaut et al. (2010) suggestion of a minor disconformity at ca. 100 m sub-bottom depth, we here interpret this seismic feature as a thick turbidite related to a mass wasting event. Consequently we can affirm continuity of lacustrine sedimen-tation in the depocenter of Lake Chala throughout the past ca. 250,000 years.
Keywords
CRATER LAKE, LEVEL RECONSTRUCTIONS, DRILLING PROJECT, LATE PLEISTOCENE, CLIMATE-CHANGE, IMPACT CRATER, SEDIMENTARY, EVOLUTION, VARIABILITY, RECORD, DeepCHALLA, East africa, Mt, kilimanjaro, Lake chala, Lake-level, reconstruction, Seismic stratigraphy

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MLA
Maitituerdi, Aihemaiti, et al. “Depositional History of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, Equatorial East Africa) from High-Resolution Seismic Stratigraphy.” JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES, vol. 189, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2022.104499.
APA
Maitituerdi, A., Van Daele, M., Verschuren, D., De Batist, M., & Waldmann, N. (2022). Depositional history of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, equatorial East Africa) from high-resolution seismic stratigraphy. JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES, 189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2022.104499
Chicago author-date
Maitituerdi, Aihemaiti, Maarten Van Daele, Dirk Verschuren, Marc De Batist, and Nicolas Waldmann. 2022. “Depositional History of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, Equatorial East Africa) from High-Resolution Seismic Stratigraphy.” JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES 189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2022.104499.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Maitituerdi, Aihemaiti, Maarten Van Daele, Dirk Verschuren, Marc De Batist, and Nicolas Waldmann. 2022. “Depositional History of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, Equatorial East Africa) from High-Resolution Seismic Stratigraphy.” JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES 189. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2022.104499.
Vancouver
1.
Maitituerdi A, Van Daele M, Verschuren D, De Batist M, Waldmann N. Depositional history of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, equatorial East Africa) from high-resolution seismic stratigraphy. JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES. 2022;189.
IEEE
[1]
A. Maitituerdi, M. Van Daele, D. Verschuren, M. De Batist, and N. Waldmann, “Depositional history of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, equatorial East Africa) from high-resolution seismic stratigraphy,” JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES, vol. 189, 2022.
@article{8756917,
  abstract     = {{Sediments deposited in Lake Chala (Kenya/Tanzania) constitute a high-resolution archive of past climate and environmental change in equatorial East Africa spanning two glacial-interglacial cycles. To correctly interpret the proxy records it contains, it is crucial to understand the evolution of lacustrine sedimentation in this volcanic crater basin. Building on previous seismic stratigraphic analysis by Moernaut et al. (2010) of a dense grid of 37 km high-resolution seismic reflection profiles with up to 270 ms two-way travel time (ca. 210 m depth) of sub-bottom penetration, this study presents a seismic-based reconstruction of the complete depositional history of Lake Chala as well as a first-order age model for the major documented stages in lake evolution. The seismic stratigraphic sequence comprises 16 distinct and finely-stratified units (U1-U16, youngest to oldest), grouped into five major depositional stages. Stage I (U16, ca. 249-212 ka) marks the initiation of sedimentation in an originally ring-shaped depositional area surrounding two central tuff cones emerging from the basin floor. Stage II (U15-U12, ca. 212-114 ka) represents the onset of basinwide sedimentation above the tuff cones, implying a gradual rise in lake depth and shift to more strictly hemipelagic sedimentation. Stage III (U11-U8, ca. 114-97 ka) represents the development of a relatively flat lake floor during a period of significantly reduced lake depth. Stage IV (U7-U4, ca. 97-20.5 ka) is again characterized by largely undisturbed hemipelagic sedimentation under mostly high lake-depth conditions. Stage V (U3-U1, 20.5 ka BP to Present) represents the establishment of the present-day, very broad and flat basin floor under fluctuating lake level. Reassessing the Moernaut et al. (2010) suggestion of a minor disconformity at ca. 100 m sub-bottom depth, we here interpret this seismic feature as a thick turbidite related to a mass wasting event. Consequently we can affirm continuity of lacustrine sedimen-tation in the depocenter of Lake Chala throughout the past ca. 250,000 years.}},
  articleno    = {{104499}},
  author       = {{Maitituerdi, Aihemaiti and Van Daele, Maarten and Verschuren, Dirk and De Batist, Marc and Waldmann, Nicolas}},
  issn         = {{1464-343X}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF AFRICAN EARTH SCIENCES}},
  keywords     = {{CRATER LAKE,LEVEL RECONSTRUCTIONS,DRILLING PROJECT,LATE PLEISTOCENE,CLIMATE-CHANGE,IMPACT CRATER,SEDIMENTARY,EVOLUTION,VARIABILITY,RECORD,DeepCHALLA,East africa,Mt,kilimanjaro,Lake chala,Lake-level,reconstruction,Seismic stratigraphy}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{15}},
  title        = {{Depositional history of Lake Chala (Mt. Kilimanjaro, equatorial East Africa) from high-resolution seismic stratigraphy}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2022.104499}},
  volume       = {{189}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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