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Hydrochemical characterization and groundwater potential of the deep aquifer system in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh

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Abstract
Maintaining the water quality of a coastal aquifer is very important for its sustainable development and management. The shallow aquifers in the southwest coast of Bangladesh are highly saline. This research was conducted to explore the hydrochemistry and potential of the deep aquifer using pumping test, hydrochemistry, multivariate statistics, and groundwater quality index. The groundwater is mostly of NaHCO3 type (85%), but small amount of NaCl (15%) type waters are also present. Principal component analysis indicates four factors (73.43% of the total variance) controlling the composition of groundwater: paleo-seawater, cation exchange, mineral dissolution, and oxidizing conditions. Zonation of hydrogeochemical processes within the deep aquifer are well established by hierarchical cluster analysis. Seven clusters have been distinguished from this analysis: cluster 1 (paleo-saltwater), clusters 2 and 4 (freshwater influence), clusters 3 and 7 (freshwater invasion and mineral dissolution), cluster 5 (no specific geographical location) and cluster 6 (mixed water). The groundwater quality index shows that 88% sampled water is of excellent to good and only 3% is unsuitable for drinking purposes. However, 53% of water has Na+ concentration above drinking standard. This parameter has very little contribution in groundwater quality index calculation, which we consider a shortage. Pumping tests revealed that transmissivity of deep aquifer has a median value of 888 m(2)/day and a hydraulic conductivity of around 15 m/d, indicating a good hydrodynamic potential. The overall water quality is good, except in the southwest corner of the study area. It is, therefore, recommended to exploit groundwater from the deep aquifer.
Keywords
Hydrochemistry, GWQI, Multivariate statistics, Cation exchange, Hydrodynamic potential, MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL-ANALYSIS, HYDROGEOCHEMICAL EVOLUTION, SEAWATER INTRUSION, WEST-BENGAL, QUALITY, CLASSIFICATION, IDENTIFICATION, EXAMPLE

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MLA
Sarker, Md Mizanur Rahman, et al. “Hydrochemical Characterization and Groundwater Potential of the Deep Aquifer System in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh.” JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES, vol. 234, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2022.105271.
APA
Sarker, M. M. R., Van Camp, M., Hossain, D., Islam, M., Ahmed, N., Karim, M. M., … Walraevens, K. (2022). Hydrochemical characterization and groundwater potential of the deep aquifer system in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES, 234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2022.105271
Chicago author-date
Sarker, Md Mizanur Rahman, Marc Van Camp, Delwar Hossain, Mazeda Islam, Nasir Ahmed, Md Masur Karim, Md Abdul Quaiyum Bhuiyan, Md Ariful Ahsan, and Kristine Walraevens. 2022. “Hydrochemical Characterization and Groundwater Potential of the Deep Aquifer System in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh.” JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES 234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2022.105271.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Sarker, Md Mizanur Rahman, Marc Van Camp, Delwar Hossain, Mazeda Islam, Nasir Ahmed, Md Masur Karim, Md Abdul Quaiyum Bhuiyan, Md Ariful Ahsan, and Kristine Walraevens. 2022. “Hydrochemical Characterization and Groundwater Potential of the Deep Aquifer System in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh.” JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES 234. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2022.105271.
Vancouver
1.
Sarker MMR, Van Camp M, Hossain D, Islam M, Ahmed N, Karim MM, et al. Hydrochemical characterization and groundwater potential of the deep aquifer system in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES. 2022;234.
IEEE
[1]
M. M. R. Sarker et al., “Hydrochemical characterization and groundwater potential of the deep aquifer system in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh,” JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES, vol. 234, 2022.
@article{8754791,
  abstract     = {{Maintaining the water quality of a coastal aquifer is very important for its sustainable development and management. The shallow aquifers in the southwest coast of Bangladesh are highly saline. This research was conducted to explore the hydrochemistry and potential of the deep aquifer using pumping test, hydrochemistry, multivariate statistics, and groundwater quality index. The groundwater is mostly of NaHCO3 type (85%), but small amount of NaCl (15%) type waters are also present. Principal component analysis indicates four factors (73.43% of the total variance) controlling the composition of groundwater: paleo-seawater, cation exchange, mineral dissolution, and oxidizing conditions. Zonation of hydrogeochemical processes within the deep aquifer are well established by hierarchical cluster analysis. Seven clusters have been distinguished from this analysis: cluster 1 (paleo-saltwater), clusters 2 and 4 (freshwater influence), clusters 3 and 7 (freshwater invasion and mineral dissolution), cluster 5 (no specific geographical location) and cluster 6 (mixed water). The groundwater quality index shows that 88% sampled water is of excellent to good and only 3% is unsuitable for drinking purposes. However, 53% of water has Na+ concentration above drinking standard. This parameter has very little contribution in groundwater quality index calculation, which we consider a shortage. Pumping tests revealed that transmissivity of deep aquifer has a median value of 888 m(2)/day and a hydraulic conductivity of around 15 m/d, indicating a good hydrodynamic potential. The overall water quality is good, except in the southwest corner of the study area. It is, therefore, recommended to exploit groundwater from the deep aquifer.}},
  articleno    = {{105271}},
  author       = {{Sarker, Md Mizanur Rahman and Van Camp, Marc and Hossain, Delwar and Islam, Mazeda and Ahmed, Nasir and Karim, Md Masur and Quaiyum Bhuiyan, Md Abdul and Ahsan, Md Ariful and Walraevens, Kristine}},
  issn         = {{1367-9120}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF ASIAN EARTH SCIENCES}},
  keywords     = {{Hydrochemistry,GWQI,Multivariate statistics,Cation exchange,Hydrodynamic potential,MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL-ANALYSIS,HYDROGEOCHEMICAL EVOLUTION,SEAWATER INTRUSION,WEST-BENGAL,QUALITY,CLASSIFICATION,IDENTIFICATION,EXAMPLE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{Hydrochemical characterization and groundwater potential of the deep aquifer system in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2022.105271}},
  volume       = {{234}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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