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Haemorrhagic diathesis in neonatal calves: an emerging syndrome in Europe

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Abstract
In 2008 and 2009 a large number of cases of haemorrhagic diathesis (HD) in neonatal calves were reported in different European countries. In Flanders, 84 cases of neonatal HD in 30 herds were reported in this period. The disease typically affects calves younger than 1 month old from different breed and gender. Prominent clinical signs are cutaneous bleeding, petechiae on all mucosae, melena and often high fever. Early in the disease, the mental state of the animals is uncompromised. The typical haematological finding is pancytopenia, with severe to complete thrombocytopenia being the cause of the increased susceptibility to bleeding. In seven of the affected herds blood samples of calves of the same age group as the clinical case were collected and on six of those farms at least one subclinical case could be identified. Necropsy findings were generalized petechiae, ecchymoses or haemorrhages and variable lymphadenopathy. Histopathology of haemorrhagic lesions revealed multifocal extravasation of red blood cells (haemorrhage) with preservation of tissue architecture and absence of other abnormalities. Total bone marrow aplasia and depletion of all lymphoid tissue was the most prominent finding on histology. Activated macrophages and haemophagocytosis were seen on bone marrow cytology from two live calves. Polymerase chain reaction for bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus was negative. Several attempts to isolate a viral agent were unsuccessful.
Keywords
calves, haemorrhagic diathesis, pancytopenia, bone marrow aplasia, neonatal, bleeding, VIRAL-DIARRHEA-VIRUS, BONE-MARROW APLASIA, BEEF-CALVES, PANCYTOPENIA, THROMBOCYTOPENIA, CIRCOVIRUS, ANEMIA, CATTLE, PARVOVIRUS-B19, DEFICIENCY

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Chicago
Pardon, Bart, Lennert Steukers, Jan Dierick, Richard Ducatelle, Veronique Saey, Sofie Maes, Griet Vercauteren, et al. 2010. “Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Neonatal Calves: An Emerging Syndrome in Europe.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 57 (3): 135–146.
APA
Pardon, B., Steukers, L., Dierick, J., Ducatelle, R., Saey, V., Maes, S., Vercauteren, G., et al. (2010). Haemorrhagic diathesis in neonatal calves: an emerging syndrome in Europe. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, 57(3), 135–146.
Vancouver
1.
Pardon B, Steukers L, Dierick J, Ducatelle R, Saey V, Maes S, et al. Haemorrhagic diathesis in neonatal calves: an emerging syndrome in Europe. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2010;57(3):135–46.
MLA
Pardon, Bart, Lennert Steukers, Jan Dierick, et al. “Haemorrhagic Diathesis in Neonatal Calves: An Emerging Syndrome in Europe.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 57.3 (2010): 135–146. Print.
@article{875351,
  abstract     = {In 2008 and 2009 a large number of cases of haemorrhagic diathesis (HD) in neonatal calves were reported in different European countries. In Flanders, 84 cases of neonatal HD in 30 herds were reported in this period. The disease typically affects calves younger than 1 month old from different breed and gender.
Prominent clinical signs are cutaneous bleeding, petechiae on all mucosae, melena and often high fever. Early in the disease, the mental state of the animals is uncompromised. The typical haematological finding is pancytopenia, with severe to complete thrombocytopenia being the cause of the increased susceptibility to bleeding. In seven of the affected herds blood samples of calves of the same age group as the clinical case were collected and on six of those farms at least one subclinical case could be identified. Necropsy findings were generalized petechiae, ecchymoses or haemorrhages and variable lymphadenopathy.
Histopathology of haemorrhagic lesions revealed multifocal extravasation of red blood cells (haemorrhage) with preservation of tissue architecture and absence of other abnormalities. Total bone marrow aplasia and depletion of all lymphoid tissue was the most prominent finding on histology. Activated macrophages and haemophagocytosis were seen on bone marrow cytology from two live calves. Polymerase chain reaction for bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus was negative. Several attempts to isolate a viral agent were unsuccessful.},
  author       = {Pardon, Bart and Steukers, Lennert and Dierick, Jan and Ducatelle, Richard and Saey, Veronique and Maes, Sofie and Vercauteren, Griet and De Clercq, Kris and Callens, Jozefien and De Bleecker, Koen and Deprez, Piet},
  issn         = {1865-1674},
  journal      = {TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES},
  keyword      = {calves,haemorrhagic diathesis,pancytopenia,bone marrow aplasia,neonatal,bleeding,VIRAL-DIARRHEA-VIRUS,BONE-MARROW APLASIA,BEEF-CALVES,PANCYTOPENIA,THROMBOCYTOPENIA,CIRCOVIRUS,ANEMIA,CATTLE,PARVOVIRUS-B19,DEFICIENCY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {135--146},
  title        = {Haemorrhagic diathesis in neonatal calves: an emerging syndrome in Europe},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01098.x},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2010},
}

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