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Associations between borderline personality disorder features, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes : a network analysis in a nonclinical sample

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Abstract
Background: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a heterogeneous personality disorder. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and schema modes are two core concepts of schema theory that play an essential role in understanding BPD symptomatology. Methods: This study aimed to model the complex associations between key BPD features (e.g., Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative Emotions, and Self-Harm), EMSs, and schema modes using network analysis in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 989). The Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline subscale (PAI-BOR), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), and the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) were used to assess the severity of BPD features, EMSs, and schema modes, respectively. Results: The schema modes were the most central nodes in the model, and the activated EMSs were related to BPD features through schema modes. Distinctive BPD features were also associated with specific schema modes. Interestingly, Affective Instability and Self-Harm features were directly associated with Impulsive Child mode. Identity Problems showed unique associations with the Abandonment schema, Vulnerable Child, and Punitive Parent modes. Finally, Negative Relations were also uniquely connected to the Angry Child mode. Conclusions: The findings of this study can be helpful for clinicians and researchers to deepen their knowledge about BPD conceptualization.
Keywords
General Psychology, Borderline, BPD, Network analysis, schema, YSQ, SMI, YOUNG-ADULTS, RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, THERAPY

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MLA
Esmaeilian, Nasrin, et al. “Associations between Borderline Personality Disorder Features, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Schema Modes : A Network Analysis in a Nonclinical Sample.” PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, vol. 195, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.paid.2022.111674.
APA
Esmaeilian, N., Hoorelbeke, K., Naderzadeh, S., & Koster, E. (2022). Associations between borderline personality disorder features, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes : a network analysis in a nonclinical sample. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111674
Chicago author-date
Esmaeilian, Nasrin, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Saba Naderzadeh, and Ernst Koster. 2022. “Associations between Borderline Personality Disorder Features, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Schema Modes : A Network Analysis in a Nonclinical Sample.” PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111674.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Esmaeilian, Nasrin, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Saba Naderzadeh, and Ernst Koster. 2022. “Associations between Borderline Personality Disorder Features, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Schema Modes : A Network Analysis in a Nonclinical Sample.” PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 195. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2022.111674.
Vancouver
1.
Esmaeilian N, Hoorelbeke K, Naderzadeh S, Koster E. Associations between borderline personality disorder features, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes : a network analysis in a nonclinical sample. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. 2022;195.
IEEE
[1]
N. Esmaeilian, K. Hoorelbeke, S. Naderzadeh, and E. Koster, “Associations between borderline personality disorder features, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes : a network analysis in a nonclinical sample,” PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, vol. 195, 2022.
@article{8752806,
  abstract     = {{Background: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a heterogeneous personality disorder. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and schema modes are two core concepts of schema theory that play an essential role in understanding BPD symptomatology.

Methods: This study aimed to model the complex associations between key BPD features (e.g., Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative Emotions, and Self-Harm), EMSs, and schema modes using network analysis in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 989). The Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline subscale (PAI-BOR), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), and the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) were used to assess the severity of BPD features, EMSs, and schema modes, respectively.

Results: The schema modes were the most central nodes in the model, and the activated EMSs were related to BPD features through schema modes. Distinctive BPD features were also associated with specific schema modes. Interestingly, Affective Instability and Self-Harm features were directly associated with Impulsive Child mode. Identity Problems showed unique associations with the Abandonment schema, Vulnerable Child, and Punitive Parent modes. Finally, Negative Relations were also uniquely connected to the Angry Child mode.

Conclusions: The findings of this study can be helpful for clinicians and researchers to deepen their knowledge about BPD conceptualization.}},
  articleno    = {{111674}},
  author       = {{Esmaeilian, Nasrin and Hoorelbeke, Kristof and Naderzadeh, Saba and Koster, Ernst}},
  issn         = {{0191-8869}},
  journal      = {{PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES}},
  keywords     = {{General Psychology,Borderline,BPD,Network analysis,schema,YSQ,SMI,YOUNG-ADULTS,RELIABILITY,VALIDITY,THERAPY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{8}},
  title        = {{Associations between borderline personality disorder features, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes : a network analysis in a nonclinical sample}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2022.111674}},
  volume       = {{195}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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