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Predictors of drought-induced crop yield/losses in two agroecologies of southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

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Abstract
The consequences of prolonged precipitation-deficient periods are primarily substantial water deficit. The spatial characteristics of drylands and various socioeconomic factors worsen droughts’ impacts and deepen poverty among agrarian communities, with attendant food security (stability dimension) implications. This study utilizes a combination of climate, remote sensing and field survey data to obtain first-hand information on the impacts of recent (2015 and 2017) droughts on crop yield in southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Annual and seasonal rainfall, annual and seasonal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Deviation of NDVI (Dev-NDVI), and monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (SPI-1, SPI-3 and SPI-12) for June to October, were considered as likely factors that could relate with yield and yield loss in the area. Correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression statistical techniques were used to determine drought-yield relationships, and identify more accurate predictors of yield and yield losses in each of the drought years. The area witnessed a more widespread precipitation deficit in 2015 than in 2017, where the lowland area recorded entire crop (sorghum) losses. Also, droughts manifested spatiotemporal variations and impacts across the two different agroecologies—primarily reduction in vegetation amounts, coinciding with the planting and maturing stages of barley and sorghum. Crop failures, therefore, translated to food shortages and reduced income of smallholder farmers, which denotes food insecurity in the time of droughts. Seasonal rainfall and June Dev-NDVI predicted 66.9% of 2015 barley and sorghum yield-loss, while NDVI predicted 2017 sorghum yield by 96%. Spate irrigation should be further popularized in the low-lying areas of Raya Azebo to augment for future deficiencies in the kiremt rainfall.
Keywords
Multidisciplinary, AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT, CLIMATE, INDEX, IMPACTS, SEASON, ONSET

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MLA
Eze, Emmanuel, et al. “Predictors of Drought-Induced Crop Yield/Losses in Two Agroecologies of Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 12, no. 1, 2022, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09862-x.
APA
Eze, E., Girma, A., Zenebe, A., Okolo, C. C., Kourouma, J. M., & Negash, E. (2022). Predictors of drought-induced crop yield/losses in two agroecologies of southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09862-x
Chicago author-date
Eze, Emmanuel, Atkilt Girma, Amanuel Zenebe, Chukwuebuka Christopher Okolo, Jean Moussa Kourouma, and Emnet Negash. 2022. “Predictors of Drought-Induced Crop Yield/Losses in Two Agroecologies of Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 12 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09862-x.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Eze, Emmanuel, Atkilt Girma, Amanuel Zenebe, Chukwuebuka Christopher Okolo, Jean Moussa Kourouma, and Emnet Negash. 2022. “Predictors of Drought-Induced Crop Yield/Losses in Two Agroecologies of Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 12 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09862-x.
Vancouver
1.
Eze E, Girma A, Zenebe A, Okolo CC, Kourouma JM, Negash E. Predictors of drought-induced crop yield/losses in two agroecologies of southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2022;12(1).
IEEE
[1]
E. Eze, A. Girma, A. Zenebe, C. C. Okolo, J. M. Kourouma, and E. Negash, “Predictors of drought-induced crop yield/losses in two agroecologies of southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 12, no. 1, 2022.
@article{8749772,
  abstract     = {{The consequences of prolonged precipitation-deficient periods are primarily substantial water deficit. The spatial characteristics of drylands and various socioeconomic factors worsen droughts’ impacts and deepen poverty among agrarian communities, with attendant food security (stability dimension) implications. This study utilizes a combination of climate, remote sensing and field survey data to obtain first-hand information on the impacts of recent (2015 and 2017) droughts on crop yield in southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Annual and seasonal rainfall, annual and seasonal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Deviation of NDVI (Dev-NDVI), and monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (SPI-1, SPI-3 and SPI-12) for June to October, were considered as likely factors that could relate with yield and yield loss in the area. Correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression statistical techniques were used to determine drought-yield relationships, and identify more accurate predictors of yield and yield losses in each of the drought years. The area witnessed a more widespread precipitation deficit in 2015 than in 2017, where the lowland area recorded entire crop (sorghum) losses. Also, droughts manifested spatiotemporal variations and impacts across the two different agroecologies—primarily reduction in vegetation amounts, coinciding with the planting and maturing stages of barley and sorghum. Crop failures, therefore, translated to food shortages and reduced income of smallholder farmers, which denotes food insecurity in the time of droughts. Seasonal rainfall and June Dev-NDVI predicted 66.9% of 2015 barley and sorghum yield-loss, while NDVI predicted 2017 sorghum yield by 96%. Spate irrigation should be further popularized in the low-lying areas of Raya Azebo to augment for future deficiencies in the kiremt rainfall.}},
  articleno    = {{6284}},
  author       = {{Eze, Emmanuel and Girma, Atkilt and Zenebe, Amanuel and Okolo, Chukwuebuka Christopher and Kourouma, Jean Moussa and Negash, Emnet}},
  issn         = {{2045-2322}},
  journal      = {{SCIENTIFIC REPORTS}},
  keywords     = {{Multidisciplinary,AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT,CLIMATE,INDEX,IMPACTS,SEASON,ONSET}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{Predictors of drought-induced crop yield/losses in two agroecologies of southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09862-x}},
  volume       = {{12}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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