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Woodland management as major energy supply during the early industrialization : a multiproxy analysis in the northwest European lowlands

(2022) LAND. 11(4).
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Abstract
Wood and charcoal were key sources of energy during early industrialization in Europe (18th century), preceding the large-scale exploitation of fossil coal. Past timber harvesting implied land transformation and woodland resources management. Therefore, relict charcoal kilns and historical documents of forest management are important sources of information about past woodland composition and structure. However, ancient charcoal kilns are poorly documented in temperate woodlands in the lowlands of western Europe, especially combined with historical written sources. In this study, charcoal production was investigated in an area in NE France, by combining charcoal and historical sources analysis, along with innovative dating methodologies. Thus, by using both radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence dating, we showed that the activity lasted until recent times (19th-early 20th centuries) and Carpinus was the dominant taxon in charcoal assemblage. Moreover, kiln attributes seemed to be independent of topographical variables. Woodlands in this area were subject to a coppice-with-standards management, where small diameter wood was preferred to produce charcoal and large diameter stems, mainly Quercus and Fagus, were traded as timber. The dominance of Carpinus is rather uncommon in charcoal studies but supports the importance of Carpinus as fuelwood since the Middle Ages, as confirmed by many written sources.
Keywords
charcoal kiln, charcoal production, Carpinus betulus, historical records, OSL dating, radiocarbon dating, Northeastern France, timber harvesting, CHARCOAL KILN SITES, FOREST MANAGEMENT, MEDIEVAL, HISTORY, EXPLOITATION, ANTHRACOLOGY, TIMES, TOOL

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Citation

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MLA
Oliveira, Cláudia, et al. “Woodland Management as Major Energy Supply during the Early Industrialization : A Multiproxy Analysis in the Northwest European Lowlands.” LAND, vol. 11, no. 4, 2022, doi:10.3390/land11040555.
APA
Oliveira, C., Bouquerel, J., Rochel, X., Karimi Moayed, N., Vandenberghe, D., De Grave, J., … Robin, V. (2022). Woodland management as major energy supply during the early industrialization : a multiproxy analysis in the northwest European lowlands. LAND, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040555
Chicago author-date
Oliveira, Cláudia, Jonathan Bouquerel, Xavier Rochel, Nasrin Karimi Moayed, Dimitri Vandenberghe, Johan De Grave, Koen Deforce, Simon Devin, and Vincent Robin. 2022. “Woodland Management as Major Energy Supply during the Early Industrialization : A Multiproxy Analysis in the Northwest European Lowlands.” LAND 11 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040555.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Oliveira, Cláudia, Jonathan Bouquerel, Xavier Rochel, Nasrin Karimi Moayed, Dimitri Vandenberghe, Johan De Grave, Koen Deforce, Simon Devin, and Vincent Robin. 2022. “Woodland Management as Major Energy Supply during the Early Industrialization : A Multiproxy Analysis in the Northwest European Lowlands.” LAND 11 (4). doi:10.3390/land11040555.
Vancouver
1.
Oliveira C, Bouquerel J, Rochel X, Karimi Moayed N, Vandenberghe D, De Grave J, et al. Woodland management as major energy supply during the early industrialization : a multiproxy analysis in the northwest European lowlands. LAND. 2022;11(4).
IEEE
[1]
C. Oliveira et al., “Woodland management as major energy supply during the early industrialization : a multiproxy analysis in the northwest European lowlands,” LAND, vol. 11, no. 4, 2022.
@article{8749577,
  abstract     = {{Wood and charcoal were key sources of energy during early industrialization in Europe (18th century), preceding the large-scale exploitation of fossil coal. Past timber harvesting implied land transformation and woodland resources management. Therefore, relict charcoal kilns and historical documents of forest management are important sources of information about past woodland composition and structure. However, ancient charcoal kilns are poorly documented in temperate woodlands in the lowlands of western Europe, especially combined with historical written sources. In this study, charcoal production was investigated in an area in NE France, by combining charcoal and historical sources analysis, along with innovative dating methodologies. Thus, by using both radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence dating, we showed that the activity lasted until recent times (19th-early 20th centuries) and Carpinus was the dominant taxon in charcoal assemblage. Moreover, kiln attributes seemed to be independent of topographical variables. Woodlands in this area were subject to a coppice-with-standards management, where small diameter wood was preferred to produce charcoal and large diameter stems, mainly Quercus and Fagus, were traded as timber. The dominance of Carpinus is rather uncommon in charcoal studies but supports the importance of Carpinus as fuelwood since the Middle Ages, as confirmed by many written sources.}},
  articleno    = {{555}},
  author       = {{Oliveira, Cláudia and Bouquerel, Jonathan and Rochel, Xavier and Karimi Moayed, Nasrin and Vandenberghe, Dimitri and De Grave, Johan and Deforce, Koen and Devin, Simon and Robin, Vincent}},
  issn         = {{2073-445X}},
  journal      = {{LAND}},
  keywords     = {{charcoal kiln,charcoal production,Carpinus betulus,historical records,OSL dating,radiocarbon dating,Northeastern France,timber harvesting,CHARCOAL KILN SITES,FOREST MANAGEMENT,MEDIEVAL,HISTORY,EXPLOITATION,ANTHRACOLOGY,TIMES,TOOL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Woodland management as major energy supply during the early industrialization : a multiproxy analysis in the northwest European lowlands}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3390/land11040555}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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