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Plasma-enhanced elemental enrichment of liquid metal interfaces : towards realization of GaS nanodomains in two-dimensional Ga2O3

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Abstract
Atomic-scale incorporation of elemental impurities into two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors is a significant step towards tailoring novel 2D materials in functional electronics. Here, the elemental functionalization of 2D surface oxide films of gallium-indium (EGaIn) liquid alloy is achieved through plasma-enhanced metal-catalyst-assisted dissociation of H2S on EGaIn surface. The electronic properties of EGaIn/2D Ga2O3 heterointerfaces were considerably altered after surface functionalization. The in-situ material characterizations confirmed the successful dissociation of H2S gas on the surface of EGaIn alloy. Furthermore, material characterizations showed the growth of crystalline domains of GaS inside of Ga2O3 amorphous structure. Consequently, lateral 2D heterointerfaces were developed between amorphous Ga2O3 and crystalline GaS. Comprehensive analysis demonstrated that the combined mechanisms of valence change and electrochemical metallization were engaged in bipolar resistive switching dynamics of functionalized 2D oxide films The considerable increase of high-resistance switching current from 10−15 A to 10−9 A was observed after functionalization of 2D heterointerfaces. The comprehensive studies by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) demonstrated the surface perturbation of liquid metal interfaces, caused by electrochemical metallization process during resistive switching. The voltage-dependent self-rectifying characteristics and non-Ohmic to Ohmic transition were additionally observed owning to the development of heterointerfaces between the liquid metal and 2D Ga2O3 film
Keywords
General Materials Science, 2D materials, Plasma functionalization, Ga2O3, GaS, Resistive switching, HYDROGEN-SULFIDE, GALLIUM, SULFUR, OXIDE, FUNCTIONALIZATION, MONOLAYER, GROWTH

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MLA
Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad, et al. “Plasma-Enhanced Elemental Enrichment of Liquid Metal Interfaces : Towards Realization of GaS Nanodomains in Two-Dimensional Ga2O3.” APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY, vol. 27, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2022.101461.
APA
Karbalaei Akbari, M., Verpoort, F., & Zhuiykov, S. (2022). Plasma-enhanced elemental enrichment of liquid metal interfaces : towards realization of GaS nanodomains in two-dimensional Ga2O3. APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY, 27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2022.101461
Chicago author-date
Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad, Francis Verpoort, and Serge Zhuiykov. 2022. “Plasma-Enhanced Elemental Enrichment of Liquid Metal Interfaces : Towards Realization of GaS Nanodomains in Two-Dimensional Ga2O3.” APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY 27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2022.101461.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad, Francis Verpoort, and Serge Zhuiykov. 2022. “Plasma-Enhanced Elemental Enrichment of Liquid Metal Interfaces : Towards Realization of GaS Nanodomains in Two-Dimensional Ga2O3.” APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY 27. doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2022.101461.
Vancouver
1.
Karbalaei Akbari M, Verpoort F, Zhuiykov S. Plasma-enhanced elemental enrichment of liquid metal interfaces : towards realization of GaS nanodomains in two-dimensional Ga2O3. APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY. 2022;27.
IEEE
[1]
M. Karbalaei Akbari, F. Verpoort, and S. Zhuiykov, “Plasma-enhanced elemental enrichment of liquid metal interfaces : towards realization of GaS nanodomains in two-dimensional Ga2O3,” APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY, vol. 27, 2022.
@article{8749159,
  abstract     = {{Atomic-scale incorporation of elemental impurities into two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors is a significant step towards tailoring novel 2D materials in functional electronics. Here, the elemental functionalization of 2D surface oxide films of gallium-indium (EGaIn) liquid alloy is achieved through plasma-enhanced metal-catalyst-assisted dissociation of H2S on EGaIn surface. The electronic properties of EGaIn/2D Ga2O3 heterointerfaces were considerably altered after surface functionalization. The in-situ material characterizations confirmed the successful dissociation of H2S gas on the surface of EGaIn alloy. Furthermore, material characterizations showed the growth of crystalline domains of GaS inside of Ga2O3 amorphous structure. Consequently, lateral 2D heterointerfaces were developed between amorphous Ga2O3 and crystalline GaS. Comprehensive analysis demonstrated that the combined mechanisms of valence change and electrochemical metallization were engaged in bipolar resistive switching dynamics of functionalized 2D oxide films The considerable increase of high-resistance switching current from 10−15 A to 10−9 A was observed after functionalization of 2D heterointerfaces. The comprehensive studies by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) demonstrated the surface perturbation of liquid metal interfaces, caused by electrochemical metallization process during resistive switching. The voltage-dependent self-rectifying characteristics and non-Ohmic to Ohmic transition were additionally observed owning to the development of heterointerfaces between the liquid metal and 2D Ga2O3 film}},
  articleno    = {{101461}},
  author       = {{Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad and Verpoort, Francis and Zhuiykov, Serge}},
  issn         = {{2352-9407}},
  journal      = {{APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY}},
  keywords     = {{General Materials Science,2D materials,Plasma functionalization,Ga2O3,GaS,Resistive switching,HYDROGEN-SULFIDE,GALLIUM,SULFUR,OXIDE,FUNCTIONALIZATION,MONOLAYER,GROWTH}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{Plasma-enhanced elemental enrichment of liquid metal interfaces : towards realization of GaS nanodomains in two-dimensional Ga2O3}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2022.101461}},
  volume       = {{27}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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