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Primary orthostatic tremor and orthostatic tremor-plus in dogs : 60 cases (2003-2020)

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Abstract
Background Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare movement disorder characterized by high-frequency (>12 Hz) involuntary, rhythmic, sinusoidal movements affecting predominantly the limbs while standing. Objective To describe the signalment, presenting complaints, phenotype, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome of a large sample of dogs with OT. Animals Sixty dogs diagnosed with OT based on conscious electromyography. Methods Multicenter retrospective case series study. Dogs were included if they had a conscious electromyography consistent with muscle discharge frequency >12 Hz while standing. Results Fifty-three cases were diagnosed with primary OT (POT). Giant breed dogs represented most cases (83%; 44/53). Most dogs (79%; 42/53) were younger than 2 years of age at onset of signs, except for Retrievers which were all older than 3.5 years of age. The most common presenting complaints were pelvic limb tremors while standing (85%; 45/53) and difficulty when rising or sitting down (45%; 24/53). Improvement of clinical signs occurred in most dogs (85%; 45/53) treated medically with phenobarbital, primidone, gabapentin, pregabalin or clonazepam, but it was mostly partial rather than complete. Orthostatic tremor-plus was seen in 7 dogs that had concurrent neurological diseases. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Primary OT is a progressive disease of young, purebred, giant/large-breed dogs, which appears to begin later in life in Retrievers. Primary OT apparently responds partially to medications. Orthostatic tremor-plus exists in dogs and can be concomitant or associated with other neurological diseases.
Keywords
CONSENSUS STATEMENT, CLASSIFICATION, canine, paroxysmal movement disorders, postural tremor, shaky legs, syndrome, tremor syndromes

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MLA
Liatis, Theofanis, et al. “Primary Orthostatic Tremor and Orthostatic Tremor-plus in Dogs : 60 Cases (2003-2020).” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, vol. 36, no. 1, 2022, pp. 179–89, doi:10.1111/jvim.16328.
APA
Liatis, T., Gutierrez-Quintana, R., Mari, L., Czopowicz, M., Polidoro, D., Bhatti, S., … Rossmeisl, J. H. (2022). Primary orthostatic tremor and orthostatic tremor-plus in dogs : 60 cases (2003-2020). JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, 36(1), 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16328
Chicago author-date
Liatis, Theofanis, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Lorenzo Mari, Michal Czopowicz, Dakir Polidoro, Sofie Bhatti, Francesca Cozzi, et al. 2022. “Primary Orthostatic Tremor and Orthostatic Tremor-plus in Dogs : 60 Cases (2003-2020).” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 36 (1): 179–89. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16328.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Liatis, Theofanis, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Lorenzo Mari, Michal Czopowicz, Dakir Polidoro, Sofie Bhatti, Francesca Cozzi, Federica Tirrito, Josep Brocal, Roberto Jose-Lopez, Adriana Kaczmarska, Rodolfo Cappello, Georgina Harris, Lisa Alves, Clare Rusbridge, and John H. Rossmeisl. 2022. “Primary Orthostatic Tremor and Orthostatic Tremor-plus in Dogs : 60 Cases (2003-2020).” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE 36 (1): 179–189. doi:10.1111/jvim.16328.
Vancouver
1.
Liatis T, Gutierrez-Quintana R, Mari L, Czopowicz M, Polidoro D, Bhatti S, et al. Primary orthostatic tremor and orthostatic tremor-plus in dogs : 60 cases (2003-2020). JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE. 2022;36(1):179–89.
IEEE
[1]
T. Liatis et al., “Primary orthostatic tremor and orthostatic tremor-plus in dogs : 60 cases (2003-2020),” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 179–189, 2022.
@article{8748930,
  abstract     = {{Background Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare movement disorder characterized by high-frequency (>12 Hz) involuntary, rhythmic, sinusoidal movements affecting predominantly the limbs while standing. Objective To describe the signalment, presenting complaints, phenotype, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome of a large sample of dogs with OT. Animals Sixty dogs diagnosed with OT based on conscious electromyography. Methods Multicenter retrospective case series study. Dogs were included if they had a conscious electromyography consistent with muscle discharge frequency >12 Hz while standing. Results Fifty-three cases were diagnosed with primary OT (POT). Giant breed dogs represented most cases (83%; 44/53). Most dogs (79%; 42/53) were younger than 2 years of age at onset of signs, except for Retrievers which were all older than 3.5 years of age. The most common presenting complaints were pelvic limb tremors while standing (85%; 45/53) and difficulty when rising or sitting down (45%; 24/53). Improvement of clinical signs occurred in most dogs (85%; 45/53) treated medically with phenobarbital, primidone, gabapentin, pregabalin or clonazepam, but it was mostly partial rather than complete. Orthostatic tremor-plus was seen in 7 dogs that had concurrent neurological diseases. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Primary OT is a progressive disease of young, purebred, giant/large-breed dogs, which appears to begin later in life in Retrievers. Primary OT apparently responds partially to medications. Orthostatic tremor-plus exists in dogs and can be concomitant or associated with other neurological diseases.}},
  author       = {{Liatis, Theofanis and Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo and Mari, Lorenzo and Czopowicz, Michal and Polidoro, Dakir and Bhatti, Sofie and Cozzi, Francesca and Tirrito, Federica and Brocal, Josep and Jose-Lopez, Roberto and Kaczmarska, Adriana and Cappello, Rodolfo and Harris, Georgina and Alves, Lisa and Rusbridge, Clare and Rossmeisl, John H.}},
  issn         = {{0891-6640}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{CONSENSUS STATEMENT,CLASSIFICATION,canine,paroxysmal movement disorders,postural tremor,shaky legs,syndrome,tremor syndromes}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{179--189}},
  title        = {{Primary orthostatic tremor and orthostatic tremor-plus in dogs : 60 cases (2003-2020)}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16328}},
  volume       = {{36}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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