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Profiling the aerobic window of horses in response to training by means of a modified lactate minimum speed test : flatten the curve

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Abstract
There is a great need for objective external training load prescription and performance capacity evaluation in equestrian disciplines. Therefore, reliable standardised exercise tests (SETs) are needed. Classic SETs require maximum intensities with associated risks to deduce training loads from pre-described cut-off values. The lactate minimum speed (LMS) test could be a valuable alternative. Our aim was to compare new performance parameters of a modified LMS-test with those of an incremental SET, to assess the effect of training on LMS-test parameters and curve-shape, and to identify the optimal mathematical approach for LMS-curve parameters. Six untrained standardbred mares (3–4 years) performed a SET and LMS-test at the start and end of the 8-week harness training. The SET-protocol contains 5 increments (4 km/h; 3 min/step). The LMS-test started with a 3-min trot at 36–40 km/h [until blood lactate (BL) &amp;gt; 5 mmol/L] followed by 8 incremental steps (2 km/h; 3 min/step). The maximum lactate steady state estimation (MLSS) entailed &amp;gt;10 km run at the LMS and 110% LMS. The GPS, heartrate (Polar<jats:sup>®</jats:sup>), and blood lactate (BL) were monitored and plotted. Curve-parameters (R core team, 3.6.0) were (SET) VLa<jats:sub>1</jats:sub>.<jats:sub>5/2/4</jats:sub> and (LMS-test) area under the curve (AUC<jats:sub>&amp;gt;/&amp;lt;LMS</jats:sub>), LMS and Aerobic Window (AW) <jats:italic>via</jats:italic> angular vs. threshold method. Statistics for comparison: a paired <jats:italic>t</jats:italic>-test was applied, except for LMS: paired Wilcoxon test; (<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.05). The Pearson correlation (<jats:italic>r</jats:italic> &amp;gt; 0.80), Bland-Altman method, and ordinary least products (OLP) regression analyses were determined for test-correlation and concordance. Training induced a significant increase in VLa<jats:sub>1</jats:sub>.<jats:sub>5/2/4</jats:sub>. The width of the AW increased significantly while the AUC<jats:sub>&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;<jats:italic>LMS</jats:italic></jats:sub> and LMS decreased post-training (flattening U-curve). The LMS BL steady-state is reached earlier and maintained longer after training. BL<jats:sub>max</jats:sub> was significantly lower for LMS vs. SET. The 40° angular method is the optimal approach. The correlation between LMS and V<jats:sub>MLSS</jats:sub> was significantly better compared to the SET. The VLa<jats:sub>4</jats:sub> is unreliable for equine aerobic capacity assessment. The LMS-test allows more reliable individual performance capacity assessment at lower speed and BL compared to SETs. The LMS-test protocol can be further adapted, especially post-training; however, inducing modest hyperlactatemia prior to the incremental LMS-stages and omitting inclusion of a per-test recovery contributes to its robustness. This LMS-test is a promising tool for the development of tailored training programmes based on the AW, respecting animal welfare.
Keywords
Physiology (medical), Physiology, SET, validation, MLSS, fitness, equine, metabolism, lactate, standardised exercise test, INDIVIDUAL ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD, STEADY-STATE, BLOOD LACTATE, HEART-RATE, HYPERLACTEMIA INDUCTION, PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSES, EXERCISE TESTS, PERFORMANCE, PARAMETERS, INTENSITY

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MLA
De Maré, Lorie, et al. “Profiling the Aerobic Window of Horses in Response to Training by Means of a Modified Lactate Minimum Speed Test : Flatten the Curve.” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 13, 2022, doi:10.3389/fphys.2022.792052.
APA
De Maré, L., Boshuizen, B., Vidal Moreno de Vega, C., De meeûs, C., Plancke, L., Gansemans, Y., … Delesalle, C. (2022). Profiling the aerobic window of horses in response to training by means of a modified lactate minimum speed test : flatten the curve. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.792052
Chicago author-date
De Maré, Lorie, Berit Boshuizen, Carmen Vidal Moreno de Vega, Constance De meeûs, Lukas Plancke, Yannick Gansemans, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, et al. 2022. “Profiling the Aerobic Window of Horses in Response to Training by Means of a Modified Lactate Minimum Speed Test : Flatten the Curve.” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.792052.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Maré, Lorie, Berit Boshuizen, Carmen Vidal Moreno de Vega, Constance De meeûs, Lukas Plancke, Yannick Gansemans, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, Jean Eduardo de Oliveira, Guilherme Hosotani, Maarten Oosterlinck, and Catherine Delesalle. 2022. “Profiling the Aerobic Window of Horses in Response to Training by Means of a Modified Lactate Minimum Speed Test : Flatten the Curve.” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY 13. doi:10.3389/fphys.2022.792052.
Vancouver
1.
De Maré L, Boshuizen B, Vidal Moreno de Vega C, De meeûs C, Plancke L, Gansemans Y, et al. Profiling the aerobic window of horses in response to training by means of a modified lactate minimum speed test : flatten the curve. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY. 2022;13.
IEEE
[1]
L. De Maré et al., “Profiling the aerobic window of horses in response to training by means of a modified lactate minimum speed test : flatten the curve,” FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 13, 2022.
@article{8747974,
  abstract     = {{There is a great need for objective external training load prescription and performance capacity evaluation in equestrian disciplines. Therefore, reliable standardised exercise tests (SETs) are needed. Classic SETs require maximum intensities with associated risks to deduce training loads from pre-described cut-off values. The lactate minimum speed (LMS) test could be a valuable alternative. Our aim was to compare new performance parameters of a modified LMS-test with those of an incremental SET, to assess the effect of training on LMS-test parameters and curve-shape, and to identify the optimal mathematical approach for LMS-curve parameters. Six untrained standardbred mares (3–4 years) performed a SET and LMS-test at the start and end of the 8-week harness training. The SET-protocol contains 5 increments (4 km/h; 3 min/step). The LMS-test started with a 3-min trot at 36–40 km/h [until blood lactate (BL) &amp;gt; 5 mmol/L] followed by 8 incremental steps (2 km/h; 3 min/step). The maximum lactate steady state estimation (MLSS) entailed &amp;gt;10 km run at the LMS and 110% LMS. The GPS, heartrate (Polar<jats:sup>®</jats:sup>), and blood lactate (BL) were monitored and plotted. Curve-parameters (R core team, 3.6.0) were (SET) VLa<jats:sub>1</jats:sub>.<jats:sub>5/2/4</jats:sub> and (LMS-test) area under the curve (AUC<jats:sub>&amp;gt;/&amp;lt;LMS</jats:sub>), LMS and Aerobic Window (AW) <jats:italic>via</jats:italic> angular vs. threshold method. Statistics for comparison: a paired <jats:italic>t</jats:italic>-test was applied, except for LMS: paired Wilcoxon test; (<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.05). The Pearson correlation (<jats:italic>r</jats:italic> &amp;gt; 0.80), Bland-Altman method, and ordinary least products (OLP) regression analyses were determined for test-correlation and concordance. Training induced a significant increase in VLa<jats:sub>1</jats:sub>.<jats:sub>5/2/4</jats:sub>. The width of the AW increased significantly while the AUC<jats:sub>&amp;lt;/&amp;gt;<jats:italic>LMS</jats:italic></jats:sub> and LMS decreased post-training (flattening U-curve). The LMS BL steady-state is reached earlier and maintained longer after training. BL<jats:sub>max</jats:sub> was significantly lower for LMS vs. SET. The 40° angular method is the optimal approach. The correlation between LMS and V<jats:sub>MLSS</jats:sub> was significantly better compared to the SET. The VLa<jats:sub>4</jats:sub> is unreliable for equine aerobic capacity assessment. The LMS-test allows more reliable individual performance capacity assessment at lower speed and BL compared to SETs. The LMS-test protocol can be further adapted, especially post-training; however, inducing modest hyperlactatemia prior to the incremental LMS-stages and omitting inclusion of a per-test recovery contributes to its robustness. This LMS-test is a promising tool for the development of tailored training programmes based on the AW, respecting animal welfare.}},
  articleno    = {{792052}},
  author       = {{De Maré, Lorie and Boshuizen, Berit and Vidal Moreno de Vega, Carmen and De meeûs, Constance and Plancke, Lukas and Gansemans, Yannick and Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip and Deforce, Dieter and de Oliveira, Jean Eduardo and Hosotani, Guilherme and Oosterlinck, Maarten and Delesalle, Catherine}},
  issn         = {{1664-042X}},
  journal      = {{FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Physiology (medical),Physiology,SET,validation,MLSS,fitness,equine,metabolism,lactate,standardised exercise test,INDIVIDUAL ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD,STEADY-STATE,BLOOD LACTATE,HEART-RATE,HYPERLACTEMIA INDUCTION,PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSES,EXERCISE TESTS,PERFORMANCE,PARAMETERS,INTENSITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{17}},
  title        = {{Profiling the aerobic window of horses in response to training by means of a modified lactate minimum speed test : flatten the curve}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.792052}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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