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A global meta-analysis of soil salinity prediction integrating satellite remote sensing, soil sampling, and machine learning

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Abstract
Despite the growing interest among researchers, satellite-based prediction of soil salinity remains highly uncertain. The improvements in prediction accuracy reported in previous studies are usually limited to a single area. We performed a meta-analysis of regional satellite-based soil salinity predictions combined with in situ soil sampling and machine learning. Based on R-2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) collected, we evaluated the effects of various features on the model accuracy and established a Bayesian network to evaluate the joint causal effect of multifeatures. Most significant differences were found in soil sampling schemes and characteristics of the study area, including the mean and variability (averaged R-2 of 0.75 for soil sample sets with lower salinity variation and 0.62 for others) of the salinity, climate type (R-2 of 0.64 in arid areas and 0.74 in others), soil texture (R-2 of 0.66 in sandy areas and 0.57 in others), and the interval between sampling date and satellite data acquisition date (R-2 of 0.53 under the condition of over 15 days and 0.65 in others). Generally, using different satellite data has limited effects on model performance among which Sentinel-2 performed better (R-2 = 0.72) than Landsat (R-2 = 0.66). The sampling of subsamples for each sample should focus on their subpixel-scale spatial heterogeneity across satellite data rather than the number of subsamples. It is also necessary to select appropriate vegetation and salinity indices for different satellite data under different vegetation conditions. Among algorithms, random forests (R-2 = 0.70) and support vector machines (R-2 = 0.71) performed best.
Keywords
SENTINEL-1, IMPACT, CHINA, MODEL, LAKE, Salinity (geophysical), Soil, Vegetation mapping, Satellites, Predictive, models, Data models, Geography, Hyperspectral, machine learning, multispectral, remote sensing, satellite, soil salinity

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MLA
Shi, Haiyang, et al. “A Global Meta-Analysis of Soil Salinity Prediction Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Soil Sampling, and Machine Learning.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, vol. 60, 2022, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2021.3109819.
APA
Shi, H., Hellwich, O., Luo, G., Chen, C., He, H., Ochege, F. U., … De Maeyer, P. (2022). A global meta-analysis of soil salinity prediction integrating satellite remote sensing, soil sampling, and machine learning. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 60. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2021.3109819
Chicago author-date
Shi, Haiyang, Olaf Hellwich, Geping Luo, Chunbo Chen, Huili He, Friday Uchenna Ochege, Tim Van de Voorde, Alishir Kurban, and Philippe De Maeyer. 2022. “A Global Meta-Analysis of Soil Salinity Prediction Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Soil Sampling, and Machine Learning.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 60. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2021.3109819.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Shi, Haiyang, Olaf Hellwich, Geping Luo, Chunbo Chen, Huili He, Friday Uchenna Ochege, Tim Van de Voorde, Alishir Kurban, and Philippe De Maeyer. 2022. “A Global Meta-Analysis of Soil Salinity Prediction Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Soil Sampling, and Machine Learning.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 60. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2021.3109819.
Vancouver
1.
Shi H, Hellwich O, Luo G, Chen C, He H, Ochege FU, et al. A global meta-analysis of soil salinity prediction integrating satellite remote sensing, soil sampling, and machine learning. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING. 2022;60.
IEEE
[1]
H. Shi et al., “A global meta-analysis of soil salinity prediction integrating satellite remote sensing, soil sampling, and machine learning,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, vol. 60, 2022.
@article{8747219,
  abstract     = {{Despite the growing interest among researchers, satellite-based prediction of soil salinity remains highly uncertain. The improvements in prediction accuracy reported in previous studies are usually limited to a single area. We performed a meta-analysis of regional satellite-based soil salinity predictions combined with in situ soil sampling and machine learning. Based on R-2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) collected, we evaluated the effects of various features on the model accuracy and established a Bayesian network to evaluate the joint causal effect of multifeatures. Most significant differences were found in soil sampling schemes and characteristics of the study area, including the mean and variability (averaged R-2 of 0.75 for soil sample sets with lower salinity variation and 0.62 for others) of the salinity, climate type (R-2 of 0.64 in arid areas and 0.74 in others), soil texture (R-2 of 0.66 in sandy areas and 0.57 in others), and the interval between sampling date and satellite data acquisition date (R-2 of 0.53 under the condition of over 15 days and 0.65 in others). Generally, using different satellite data has limited effects on model performance among which Sentinel-2 performed better (R-2 = 0.72) than Landsat (R-2 = 0.66). The sampling of subsamples for each sample should focus on their subpixel-scale spatial heterogeneity across satellite data rather than the number of subsamples. It is also necessary to select appropriate vegetation and salinity indices for different satellite data under different vegetation conditions. Among algorithms, random forests (R-2 = 0.70) and support vector machines (R-2 = 0.71) performed best.}},
  articleno    = {{4505815}},
  author       = {{Shi, Haiyang and Hellwich, Olaf and Luo, Geping and Chen, Chunbo and He, Huili and Ochege, Friday Uchenna and Van de Voorde, Tim and Kurban, Alishir and De Maeyer, Philippe}},
  issn         = {{0196-2892}},
  journal      = {{IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING}},
  keywords     = {{SENTINEL-1,IMPACT,CHINA,MODEL,LAKE,Salinity (geophysical),Soil,Vegetation mapping,Satellites,Predictive,models,Data models,Geography,Hyperspectral,machine learning,multispectral,remote sensing,satellite,soil salinity}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{15}},
  title        = {{A global meta-analysis of soil salinity prediction integrating satellite remote sensing, soil sampling, and machine learning}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2021.3109819}},
  volume       = {{60}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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