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Examining the potential of enzyme-based detergents to remove biofouling from limestone heritage

Laurenz Schröer (UGent) , Géraldine Fiers (UGent) , Maxim Deprez (UGent) , Nico Boon (UGent) , Veerle Cnudde (UGent) , Lander Soens and Tim De Kock
(2022) COATINGS. 12(3).
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Abstract
Commonwealth war cemeteries commemorate the fallen of both world wars. Every casualty is remembered with a memorial or on a headstone. However, the headstones need to be maintained extensively, as microorganisms easily colonise them, affecting legibility and the stone substrate in the longer term. In the past, pesticides and other chemicals were popular to clean headstones, but due to raised environmental concerns, new treatment strategies are necessary. Within conservation science, enzymes have emerged as a popular tool for restoration. However, studies related to the use of enzymes for stone conservation are limited. Within this preliminary study, we applied commercially available enzyme-based treatments on biofouled natural building stones in the laboratory and in situ. Photography and spectrophotometry were used to monitor the effect of the treatment. The application of enzymes resulted in rapid disintegration of biological pigments, whereas visual improvement occurred more gradually. The successful application of enzymes suggests their potential to replace pesticides as the principal cleaning agent for headstones and natural building stones in a more general fashion.
Keywords
biofouling, biopigmentation, chlorophyll, enzymes, headstones, Portland limestone, heritage conservation, spectrophotometry, MICROBIAL DETERIORATION, CLEANING STRATEGIES, BUILDING STONES, BIODETERIORATION, SURFACES, MONUMENTS, BIOFILMS

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Schröer, Laurenz, et al. “Examining the Potential of Enzyme-Based Detergents to Remove Biofouling from Limestone Heritage.” COATINGS, edited by Beatriz Prieto and Ana Zélia Miller, vol. 12, no. 3, 2022, doi:10.3390/coatings12030375.
APA
Schröer, L., Fiers, G., Deprez, M., Boon, N., Cnudde, V., Soens, L., & De Kock, T. (2022). Examining the potential of enzyme-based detergents to remove biofouling from limestone heritage. COATINGS, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030375
Chicago author-date
Schröer, Laurenz, Géraldine Fiers, Maxim Deprez, Nico Boon, Veerle Cnudde, Lander Soens, and Tim De Kock. 2022. “Examining the Potential of Enzyme-Based Detergents to Remove Biofouling from Limestone Heritage.” Edited by Beatriz Prieto and Ana Zélia Miller. COATINGS 12 (3). https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030375.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schröer, Laurenz, Géraldine Fiers, Maxim Deprez, Nico Boon, Veerle Cnudde, Lander Soens, and Tim De Kock. 2022. “Examining the Potential of Enzyme-Based Detergents to Remove Biofouling from Limestone Heritage.” Ed by. Beatriz Prieto and Ana Zélia Miller. COATINGS 12 (3). doi:10.3390/coatings12030375.
Vancouver
1.
Schröer L, Fiers G, Deprez M, Boon N, Cnudde V, Soens L, et al. Examining the potential of enzyme-based detergents to remove biofouling from limestone heritage. Prieto B, Miller AZ, editors. COATINGS. 2022;12(3).
IEEE
[1]
L. Schröer et al., “Examining the potential of enzyme-based detergents to remove biofouling from limestone heritage,” COATINGS, vol. 12, no. 3, 2022.
@article{8746836,
  abstract     = {{Commonwealth war cemeteries commemorate the fallen of both world wars. Every casualty is remembered with a memorial or on a headstone. However, the headstones need to be maintained extensively, as microorganisms easily colonise them, affecting legibility and the stone substrate in the longer term. In the past, pesticides and other chemicals were popular to clean headstones, but due to raised environmental concerns, new treatment strategies are necessary. Within conservation science, enzymes have emerged as a popular tool for restoration. However, studies related to the use of enzymes for stone conservation are limited. Within this preliminary study, we applied commercially available enzyme-based treatments on biofouled natural building stones in the laboratory and in situ. Photography and spectrophotometry were used to monitor the effect of the treatment. The application of enzymes resulted in rapid disintegration of biological pigments, whereas visual improvement occurred more gradually. The successful application of enzymes suggests their potential to replace pesticides as the principal cleaning agent for headstones and natural building stones in a more general fashion.}},
  articleno    = {{375}},
  author       = {{Schröer, Laurenz and Fiers, Géraldine and Deprez, Maxim and Boon, Nico and Cnudde, Veerle and Soens, Lander and De Kock, Tim}},
  editor       = {{Prieto, Beatriz and Miller, Ana Zélia}},
  issn         = {{2079-6412}},
  journal      = {{COATINGS}},
  keywords     = {{biofouling,biopigmentation,chlorophyll,enzymes,headstones,Portland limestone,heritage conservation,spectrophotometry,MICROBIAL DETERIORATION,CLEANING STRATEGIES,BUILDING STONES,BIODETERIORATION,SURFACES,MONUMENTS,BIOFILMS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{3}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{Examining the potential of enzyme-based detergents to remove biofouling from limestone heritage}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030375}},
  volume       = {{12}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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