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The chicken or the egg? Causal inference in entrepreneurial orientation–performance research

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Abstract
While entrepreneurial orientation (EO) correlates with many organizational phenomena, we lack convincing evidence of causal relationships within EO’s nomological network. We explore the challenges to establishing causal relationships with a systematic review of EO–performance research. We then use a simulation to illustrate how popular research designs in EO research limit our ability to make causal claims. We conclude by outlining the research design considerations to move from associational to causal EO–performance research. Our message is that while experiments may not be practical or feasible in many areas of organizational research, including EO, scholars can nevertheless move towards causal understanding.
Keywords
Economics and Econometrics, Business and International Management, causality, endogeneity, research design, entrepreneurial orientation, firm performance, FIRM PERFORMANCE, STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT, MEDIATING ROLE, RESOURCE, ORCHESTRATION, BUSINESS PERFORMANCE, MODERATING ROLE, ENDOGENEITY, CONSTRUCT, MARKET, RECOMMENDATIONS

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MLA
Anderson, Brian, et al. “The Chicken or the Egg? Causal Inference in Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Research.” ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, vol. 46, no. 6, 2022, pp. 1569–96, doi:10.1177/1042258720976368.
APA
Anderson, B., Schueler, J., Baum, M., Wales, W. J., & Gupta, V. K. (2022). The chicken or the egg? Causal inference in entrepreneurial orientation–performance research. ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, 46(6), 1569–1596. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258720976368
Chicago author-date
Anderson, Brian, Jens Schueler, Matthias Baum, William J. Wales, and Vishal K. Gupta. 2022. “The Chicken or the Egg? Causal Inference in Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Research.” ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE 46 (6): 1569–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258720976368.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Anderson, Brian, Jens Schueler, Matthias Baum, William J. Wales, and Vishal K. Gupta. 2022. “The Chicken or the Egg? Causal Inference in Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Research.” ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE 46 (6): 1569–1596. doi:10.1177/1042258720976368.
Vancouver
1.
Anderson B, Schueler J, Baum M, Wales WJ, Gupta VK. The chicken or the egg? Causal inference in entrepreneurial orientation–performance research. ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE. 2022;46(6):1569–96.
IEEE
[1]
B. Anderson, J. Schueler, M. Baum, W. J. Wales, and V. K. Gupta, “The chicken or the egg? Causal inference in entrepreneurial orientation–performance research,” ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1569–1596, 2022.
@article{8746221,
  abstract     = {{While entrepreneurial orientation (EO) correlates with many organizational phenomena, we lack convincing evidence of causal relationships within EO’s nomological network. We explore the challenges to establishing causal relationships with a systematic review of EO–performance research. We then use a simulation to illustrate how popular research designs in EO research limit our ability to make causal claims. We conclude by outlining the research design considerations to move from associational to causal EO–performance research. Our message is that while experiments may not be practical or feasible in many areas of organizational research, including EO, scholars can nevertheless move towards causal understanding.}},
  articleno    = {{1042258720976368}},
  author       = {{Anderson, Brian and Schueler, Jens and Baum, Matthias and Wales, William J. and Gupta, Vishal K.}},
  issn         = {{1042-2587}},
  journal      = {{ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE}},
  keywords     = {{Economics and Econometrics,Business and International Management,causality,endogeneity,research design,entrepreneurial orientation,firm performance,FIRM PERFORMANCE,STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT,MEDIATING ROLE,RESOURCE,ORCHESTRATION,BUSINESS PERFORMANCE,MODERATING ROLE,ENDOGENEITY,CONSTRUCT,MARKET,RECOMMENDATIONS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{1042258720976368:1569--1042258720976368:1596}},
  title        = {{The chicken or the egg? Causal inference in entrepreneurial orientation–performance research}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1177/1042258720976368}},
  volume       = {{46}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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