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The effect of season of birth on the morphometrics of newborn Belgian Blue calves

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Abstract
Breed type and environmental factors such as breeding season may have a significant impact on neonatal morphometrics. We followed a total of 236 elective cesarean sections in Belgian Blue (BB) cows, from which neonatal calves were morphometrically assessed (in cm) within the first 72 h of delivery using a strictly standardized protocol. The effect of the season of birth on each calf measurement was analyzed using mixed linear regression models, including the farm of origin as a random effect. Calves born in spring had a longer diagonal length (69.7 +/- 1.24; P = 0.05) than those born in autumn (66.9 +/- 1.16). The tibial length of calves born in spring (35.8 +/- 0.48) was longer (P < 0.02) than of those born in autumn (33.1 +/- 0.57) or summer (34.1 +/- 0.49). Calves born in autumn have a shorter head diameter (12.9 +/- 0.23; P < 0.02) than those born in summer (12.6 +/- 0.29) or winter (13.5 +/- 0.22). For all other parameters, no differences were found (P > 0.08). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the birth season influences the morphometrics of neonatal BB calves, with a tendency for spring to be associated with the largest body size. The latter is important to avoid dystocia when BB cattle are crossed with other breeds.
Keywords
CATTLE, Double-muscle cattle, Dystocia, Cesarean section, Calf size

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MLA
Tuska, Habib Syaiful Arif, et al. “The Effect of Season of Birth on the Morphometrics of Newborn Belgian Blue Calves.” TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION, vol. 54, no. 1, 2022, doi:10.1007/s11250-022-03090-1.
APA
Tuska, H. S. A., Gretania Residiwati, Van Eetvelde, M., Verdru, K., Meesters, M., Budiono, B., … Opsomer, G. (2022). The effect of season of birth on the morphometrics of newborn Belgian Blue calves. TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION, 54(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-022-03090-1
Chicago author-date
Tuska, Habib Syaiful Arif, Gretania Residiwati, Mieke Van Eetvelde, Karel Verdru, Maya Meesters, Budiono Budiono, Osvaldo Américo Bogado Pascottini, Ann Van Soom, and Geert Opsomer. 2022. “The Effect of Season of Birth on the Morphometrics of Newborn Belgian Blue Calves.” TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION 54 (1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-022-03090-1.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Tuska, Habib Syaiful Arif, Gretania Residiwati, Mieke Van Eetvelde, Karel Verdru, Maya Meesters, Budiono Budiono, Osvaldo Américo Bogado Pascottini, Ann Van Soom, and Geert Opsomer. 2022. “The Effect of Season of Birth on the Morphometrics of Newborn Belgian Blue Calves.” TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION 54 (1). doi:10.1007/s11250-022-03090-1.
Vancouver
1.
Tuska HSA, Gretania Residiwati, Van Eetvelde M, Verdru K, Meesters M, Budiono B, et al. The effect of season of birth on the morphometrics of newborn Belgian Blue calves. TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION. 2022;54(1).
IEEE
[1]
H. S. A. Tuska et al., “The effect of season of birth on the morphometrics of newborn Belgian Blue calves,” TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION, vol. 54, no. 1, 2022.
@article{8744748,
  abstract     = {{Breed type and environmental factors such as breeding season may have a significant impact on neonatal morphometrics. We followed a total of 236 elective cesarean sections in Belgian Blue (BB) cows, from which neonatal calves were morphometrically assessed (in cm) within the first 72 h of delivery using a strictly standardized protocol. The effect of the season of birth on each calf measurement was analyzed using mixed linear regression models, including the farm of origin as a random effect. Calves born in spring had a longer diagonal length (69.7 +/- 1.24; P = 0.05) than those born in autumn (66.9 +/- 1.16). The tibial length of calves born in spring (35.8 +/- 0.48) was longer (P < 0.02) than of those born in autumn (33.1 +/- 0.57) or summer (34.1 +/- 0.49). Calves born in autumn have a shorter head diameter (12.9 +/- 0.23; P < 0.02) than those born in summer (12.6 +/- 0.29) or winter (13.5 +/- 0.22). For all other parameters, no differences were found (P > 0.08). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the birth season influences the morphometrics of neonatal BB calves, with a tendency for spring to be associated with the largest body size. The latter is important to avoid dystocia when BB cattle are crossed with other breeds.}},
  articleno    = {{76}},
  author       = {{Tuska, Habib Syaiful Arif and Gretania Residiwati and Van Eetvelde, Mieke and Verdru, Karel and Meesters, Maya and Budiono, Budiono and Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo Américo and Van Soom, Ann and Opsomer, Geert}},
  issn         = {{0049-4747}},
  journal      = {{TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION}},
  keywords     = {{CATTLE,Double-muscle cattle,Dystocia,Cesarean section,Calf size}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{5}},
  title        = {{The effect of season of birth on the morphometrics of newborn Belgian Blue calves}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-022-03090-1}},
  volume       = {{54}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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