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Abstract
Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km(2) resolution for 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km(2) pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10 degrees C (mean = 3.0 +/- 2.1 degrees C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 +/- 2.3 degrees C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 +/- 2.3 degrees C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.
Keywords
bioclimatic variables, global maps, microclimate, near-surface temperatures, soil-dwelling organisms, soil temperature, temperature offset, weather stations, LITTER DECOMPOSITION, CLIMATIC CONTROLS, PLANT-RESPONSES, SNOW-COVER, MICROCLIMATE, PERMAFROST, FOREST, SUITABILITY, MITIGATION, MOISTURE

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MLA
Lembrechts, Jonas J., et al. “Global Maps of Soil Temperature.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol. 28, no. 9, 2022, pp. 3110–44, doi:10.1111/gcb.16060.
APA
Lembrechts, J. J., Hoogen, J., Aalto, J., Ashcroft, M. B., De Frenne, P., Kemppinen, J., … Lenoir, J. (2022). Global maps of soil temperature. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, 28(9), 3110–3144. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16060
Chicago author-date
Lembrechts, Jonas J., Johan Hoogen, Juha Aalto, Michael B. Ashcroft, Pieter De Frenne, Julia Kemppinen, Martin Kopecký, et al. 2022. “Global Maps of Soil Temperature.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 28 (9): 3110–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16060.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lembrechts, Jonas J., Johan Hoogen, Juha Aalto, Michael B. Ashcroft, Pieter De Frenne, Julia Kemppinen, Martin Kopecký, Miska Luoto, Ilya M. D. Maclean, Thomas W. Crowther, Joseph J. Bailey, Stef Haesen, David H. Klinges, Pekka Niittynen, Brett R. Scheffers, Koenraad Van Meerbeek, Peter Aartsma, Otar Abdalaze, Mehdi Abedi, Rien Aerts, Negar Ahmadian, Antje Ahrends, Juha M. Alatalo, Jake M. Alexander, Camille Nina Allonsius, Jan Altman, Christof Ammann, Christian Andres, Christopher Andrews, Jonas Ardö, Nicola Arriga, Alberto Arzac, Valeria Aschero, Rafael L. Assis, Jakob Johann Assmann, Maaike Y. Bader, Khadijeh Bahalkeh, Peter Barančok, Isabel C. Barrio, Agustina Barros, Matti Barthel, Edmund W. Basham, Marijn Bauters, Manuele Bazzichetto, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Michael C. Bell, Juan C. Benavides, José Luis Benito Alonso, Bernd J. Berauer, Jarle W. Bjerke, Robert G. Björk, Mats P. Björkman, Katrin Björnsdóttir, Benjamin Blonder, Pascal Boeckx, Julia Boike, Stef Bokhorst, Bárbara N. S. Brum, Josef Brůna, Nina Buchmann, Pauline Buysse, José Luís Camargo, Otávio C. Campoe, Onur Candan, Rafaella Canessa, Nicoletta Cannone, Michele Carbognani, Jofre Carnicer, Angélica Casanova‐Katny, Simone Cesarz, Bogdan Chojnicki, Philippe Choler, Steven L. Chown, Edgar F. Cifuentes, Marek Čiliak, Tamara Contador, Peter Convey, Elisabeth J. Cooper, Edoardo Cremonese, Salvatore R. Curasi, Robin Curtis, Maurizio Cutini, C. Johan Dahlberg, Gergana N. Daskalova, Miguel Angel de Pablo, Stefano Della Chiesa, Jürgen Dengler, Bart Deronde, Patrice Descombes, Valter Di Cecco, Michele Di Musciano, Jan Dick, Romina D. Dimarco, Jiri Dolezal, Ellen Dorrepaal, Jiří Dušek, Nico Eisenhauer, Lars Eklundh, Todd E. Erickson, Brigitta Erschbamer, Werner Eugster, Robert M. Ewers, Dan A. Exton, Nicolas Fanin, Fatih Fazlioglu, Iris Feigenwinter, Giuseppe Fenu, Olga Ferlian, M. Rosa Fernández Calzado, Eduardo Fernández‐Pascual, Manfred Finckh, Rebecca Finger Higgens, T’ai G. W. Forte, Erika C. Freeman, Esther R. Frei, Eduardo Fuentes‐Lillo, Rafael A. García, María B. García, Charly Géron, Mana Gharun, Dany Ghosn, Khatuna Gigauri, Anne Gobin, Ignacio Goded, Mathias Goeckede, Felix Gottschall, Keith Goulding, Sanne Govaert, Bente Jessen Graae, Sarah Greenwood, Caroline Greiser, Achim Grelle, Benoit Guénard, Mauro Guglielmin, Joannès Guillemot, Peter Haase, Sylvia Haider, Aud H. Halbritter, Maroof Hamid, Albin Hammerle, Arndt Hampe, Siri V. Haugum, Lucia Hederová, Bernard Heinesch, Carole Helfter, Daniel Hepenstrick, Maximiliane Herberich, Mathias Herbst, Luise Hermanutz, David S. Hik, Raúl Hoffrén, Jürgen Homeier, Lukas Hörtnagl, Toke T. Høye, Filip Hrbacek, Kristoffer Hylander, Hiroki Iwata, Marcin Antoni Jackowicz‐Korczynski, Hervé Jactel, Järvi Järveoja, Szymon Jastrzębowski, Anke Jentsch, Juan J. Jiménez, Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir, Tommaso Jucker, Alistair S. Jump, Radoslaw Juszczak, Róbert Kanka, Vít Kašpar, George Kazakis, Julia Kelly, Anzar A. Khuroo, Leif Klemedtsson, Marcin Klisz, Natascha Kljun, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Jozef Kollár, Martyna M. Kotowska, Bence Kovács, Juergen Kreyling, Andrea Lamprecht, Simone I. Lang, Christian Larson, Keith Larson, Kamil Laska, Guerric Maire, Rachel I. Leihy, Luc Lens, Bengt Liljebladh, Annalea Lohila, Juan Lorite, Benjamin Loubet, Joshua Lynn, Martin Macek, Roy Mackenzie, Enzo Magliulo, Regine Maier, Francesco Malfasi, František Máliš, Matěj Man, Giovanni Manca, Antonio Manco, Tanguy Manise, Paraskevi Manolaki, Felipe Marciniak, Radim Matula, Ana Clara Mazzolari, Sergiy Medinets, Volodymyr Medinets, Camille Meeussen, Sonia Merinero, Rita de Cássia Guimarães Mesquita, Katrin Meusburger, Filip J. R. Meysman, Sean T. Michaletz, Ann Milbau, Dmitry Moiseev, Pavel Moiseev, Andrea Mondoni, Ruth Monfries, Leonardo Montagnani, Mikel Moriana‐Armendariz, Umberto Morra di Cella, Martin Mörsdorf, Jonathan R. Mosedale, Lena Muffler, Miriam Muñoz‐Rojas, Jonathan A. Myers, Isla H. Myers‐Smith, Laszlo Nagy, Marianna Nardino, Ilona Naujokaitis‐Lewis, Emily Newling, Lena Nicklas, Georg Niedrist, Armin Niessner, Mats B. Nilsson, Signe Normand, Marcelo D. Nosetto, Yann Nouvellon, Martin A. Nuñez, Romà Ogaya, Jérôme Ogée, Joseph Okello, Janusz Olejnik, Jørgen Eivind Olesen, Øystein H. Opedal, Simone Orsenigo, Andrej Palaj, Timo Pampuch, Alexey V. Panov, Meelis Pärtel, Ada Pastor, Aníbal Pauchard, Harald Pauli, Marian Pavelka, William D. Pearse, Matthias Peichl, Loïc Pellissier, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Josep Penuelas, Matteo Petit Bon, Alessandro Petraglia, Shyam S. Phartyal, Gareth K. Phoenix, Casimiro Pio, Andrea Pitacco, Camille Pitteloud, Roman Plichta, Francesco Porro, Miguel Portillo‐Estrada, Jérôme Poulenard, Rafael Poyatos, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Radoslaw Puchalka, Mihai Pușcaș, Dajana Radujković, Krystal Randall, Amanda Ratier Backes, Sabine Remmele, Wolfram Remmers, David Renault, Anita C. Risch, Christian Rixen, Sharon A. Robinson, Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Adrian V. Rocha, Christian Rossi, Graziano Rossi, Olivier Roupsard, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Patrick Saccone, Clotilde Sagot, Jhonatan Sallo Bravo, Cinthya C. Santos, Judith M. Sarneel, Tobias Scharnweber, Jonas Schmeddes, Marius Schmidt, Thomas Scholten, Max Schuchardt, Naomi Schwartz, Tony Scott, Julia Seeber, Ana Cristina Segalin de Andrade, Tim Seipel, Philipp Semenchuk, Rebecca A. Senior, Josep M. Serra‐Diaz, Piotr Sewerniak, Ankit Shekhar, Nikita V. Sidenko, Lukas Siebicke, Laura Siegwart Collier, Elizabeth Simpson, David P. Siqueira, Zuzana Sitková, Johan Six, Marko Smiljanic, Stuart W. Smith, Sarah Smith‐Tripp, Ben Somers, Mia Vedel Sørensen, José João L. L. Souza, Bartolomeu Israel Souza, Arildo Souza Dias, Marko J. Spasojevic, James D. M. Speed, Fabien Spicher, Angela Stanisci, Klaus Steinbauer, Rainer Steinbrecher, Michael Steinwandter, Michael Stemkovski, Jörg G. Stephan, Christian Stiegler, Stefan Stoll, Martin Svátek, Miroslav Svoboda, Torbern Tagesson, Andrew J. Tanentzap, Franziska Tanneberger, Jean‐Paul Theurillat, Haydn J. D. Thomas, Andrew D. Thomas, Katja Tielbörger, Marcello Tomaselli, Urs Albert Treier, Mario Trouillier, Pavel Dan Turtureanu, Rosamond Tutton, Vilna A. Tyystjärvi, Masahito Ueyama, Karol Ujházy, Mariana Ujházyová, Domas Uogintas, Anastasiya V. Urban, Josef Urban, Marek Urbaniak, Tudor‐Mihai Ursu, Francesco Primo Vaccari, Stijn Van de Vondel, Liesbeth Brink, Maarten Van Geel, Vigdis Vandvik, Pieter Vangansbeke, Andrej Varlagin, G. F. Veen, Elmar Veenendaal, Susanna E. Venn, Hans Verbeeck, Erik Verbrugggen, Frank G. A. Verheijen, Luis Villar, Luca Vitale, Pascal Vittoz, Maria Vives‐Ingla, Jonathan Oppen, Josefine Walz, Runxi Wang, Yifeng Wang, Robert G. Way, Ronja E. M. Wedegärtner, Robert Weigel, Jan Wild, Matthew Wilkinson, Martin Wilmking, Lisa Wingate, Manuela Winkler, Sonja Wipf, Georg Wohlfahrt, Georgios Xenakis, Yan Yang, Zicheng Yu, Kailiang Yu, Florian Zellweger, Jian Zhang, Zhaochen Zhang, Peng Zhao, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Reiner Zimmermann, Shengwei Zong, Viacheslav I. Zyryanov, Ivan Nijs, and Jonathan Lenoir. 2022. “Global Maps of Soil Temperature.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 28 (9): 3110–3144. doi:10.1111/gcb.16060.
Vancouver
1.
Lembrechts JJ, Hoogen J, Aalto J, Ashcroft MB, De Frenne P, Kemppinen J, et al. Global maps of soil temperature. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY. 2022;28(9):3110–44.
IEEE
[1]
J. J. Lembrechts et al., “Global maps of soil temperature,” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 3110–3144, 2022.
@article{8743335,
  abstract     = {{Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km(2) resolution for 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km(2) pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10 degrees C (mean = 3.0 +/- 2.1 degrees C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 +/- 2.3 degrees C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 +/- 2.3 degrees C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.}},
  author       = {{Lembrechts, Jonas J. and Hoogen, Johan and Aalto, Juha and Ashcroft, Michael B. and De Frenne, Pieter and Kemppinen, Julia and Kopecký, Martin and Luoto, Miska and Maclean, Ilya M. D. and Crowther, Thomas W. and Bailey, Joseph J. and Haesen, Stef and Klinges, David H. and Niittynen, Pekka and Scheffers, Brett R. and Van Meerbeek, Koenraad and Aartsma, Peter and Abdalaze, Otar and Abedi, Mehdi and Aerts, Rien and Ahmadian, Negar and Ahrends, Antje and Alatalo, Juha M. and Alexander, Jake M. and Allonsius, Camille Nina and Altman, Jan and Ammann, Christof and Andres, Christian and Andrews, Christopher and Ardö, Jonas and Arriga, Nicola and Arzac, Alberto and Aschero, Valeria and Assis, Rafael L. and Assmann, Jakob Johann and Bader, Maaike Y. and Bahalkeh, Khadijeh and Barančok, Peter and Barrio, Isabel C. and Barros, Agustina and Barthel, Matti and Basham, Edmund W. and Bauters, Marijn and Bazzichetto, Manuele and Marchesini, Luca Belelli and Bell, Michael C. and Benavides, Juan C. and Benito Alonso, José Luis and Berauer, Bernd J. and Bjerke, Jarle W. and Björk, Robert G. and Björkman, Mats P. and Björnsdóttir, Katrin and Blonder, Benjamin and Boeckx, Pascal and Boike, Julia and Bokhorst, Stef and Brum, Bárbara N. S. and Brůna, Josef and Buchmann, Nina and Buysse, Pauline and Camargo, José Luís and Campoe, Otávio C. and Candan, Onur and Canessa, Rafaella and Cannone, Nicoletta and Carbognani, Michele and Carnicer, Jofre and Casanova‐Katny, Angélica and Cesarz, Simone and Chojnicki, Bogdan and Choler, Philippe and Chown, Steven L. and Cifuentes, Edgar F. and Čiliak, Marek and Contador, Tamara and Convey, Peter and Cooper, Elisabeth J. and Cremonese, Edoardo and Curasi, Salvatore R. and Curtis, Robin and Cutini, Maurizio and Dahlberg, C. Johan and Daskalova, Gergana N. and de Pablo, Miguel Angel and Della Chiesa, Stefano and Dengler, Jürgen and Deronde, Bart and Descombes, Patrice and Di Cecco, Valter and Di Musciano, Michele and Dick, Jan and Dimarco, Romina D. and Dolezal, Jiri and Dorrepaal, Ellen and Dušek, Jiří and Eisenhauer, Nico and Eklundh, Lars and Erickson, Todd E. and Erschbamer, Brigitta and Eugster, Werner and Ewers, Robert M. and Exton, Dan A. and Fanin, Nicolas and Fazlioglu, Fatih and Feigenwinter, Iris and Fenu, Giuseppe and Ferlian, Olga and Fernández Calzado, M. Rosa and Fernández‐Pascual, Eduardo and Finckh, Manfred and Higgens, Rebecca Finger and Forte, T'ai G. W. and Freeman, Erika C. and Frei, Esther R. and Fuentes‐Lillo, Eduardo and García, Rafael A. and García, María B. and Géron, Charly and Gharun, Mana and Ghosn, Dany and Gigauri, Khatuna and Gobin, Anne and Goded, Ignacio and Goeckede, Mathias and Gottschall, Felix and Goulding, Keith and Govaert, Sanne and Graae, Bente Jessen and Greenwood, Sarah and Greiser, Caroline and Grelle, Achim and Guénard, Benoit and Guglielmin, Mauro and Guillemot, Joannès and Haase, Peter and Haider, Sylvia and Halbritter, Aud H. and Hamid, Maroof and Hammerle, Albin and Hampe, Arndt and Haugum, Siri V. and Hederová, Lucia and Heinesch, Bernard and Helfter, Carole and Hepenstrick, Daniel and Herberich, Maximiliane and Herbst, Mathias and Hermanutz, Luise and Hik, David S. and Hoffrén, Raúl and Homeier, Jürgen and Hörtnagl, Lukas and Høye, Toke T. and Hrbacek, Filip and Hylander, Kristoffer and Iwata, Hiroki and Jackowicz‐Korczynski, Marcin Antoni and Jactel, Hervé and Järveoja, Järvi and Jastrzębowski, Szymon and Jentsch, Anke and Jiménez, Juan J. and Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S. and Jucker, Tommaso and Jump, Alistair S. and Juszczak, Radoslaw and Kanka, Róbert and Kašpar, Vít and Kazakis, George and Kelly, Julia and Khuroo, Anzar A. and Klemedtsson, Leif and Klisz, Marcin and Kljun, Natascha and Knohl, Alexander and Kobler, Johannes and Kollár, Jozef and Kotowska, Martyna M. and Kovács, Bence and Kreyling, Juergen and Lamprecht, Andrea and Lang, Simone I. and Larson, Christian and Larson, Keith and Laska, Kamil and Maire, Guerric and Leihy, Rachel I. and Lens, Luc and Liljebladh, Bengt and Lohila, Annalea and Lorite, Juan and Loubet, Benjamin and Lynn, Joshua and Macek, Martin and Mackenzie, Roy and Magliulo, Enzo and Maier, Regine and Malfasi, Francesco and Máliš, František and Man, Matěj and Manca, Giovanni and Manco, Antonio and Manise, Tanguy and Manolaki, Paraskevi and Marciniak, Felipe and Matula, Radim and Mazzolari, Ana Clara and Medinets, Sergiy and Medinets, Volodymyr and Meeussen, Camille and Merinero, Sonia and Mesquita, Rita de Cássia Guimarães and Meusburger, Katrin and Meysman, Filip J. R. and Michaletz, Sean T. and Milbau, Ann and Moiseev, Dmitry and Moiseev, Pavel and Mondoni, Andrea and Monfries, Ruth and Montagnani, Leonardo and Moriana‐Armendariz, Mikel and Morra di Cella, Umberto and Mörsdorf, Martin and Mosedale, Jonathan R. and Muffler, Lena and Muñoz‐Rojas, Miriam and Myers, Jonathan A. and Myers‐Smith, Isla H. and Nagy, Laszlo and Nardino, Marianna and Naujokaitis‐Lewis, Ilona and Newling, Emily and Nicklas, Lena and Niedrist, Georg and Niessner, Armin and Nilsson, Mats B. and Normand, Signe and Nosetto, Marcelo D. and Nouvellon, Yann and Nuñez, Martin A. and Ogaya, Romà and Ogée, Jérôme and Okello, Joseph and Olejnik, Janusz and Olesen, Jørgen Eivind and Opedal, Øystein H. and Orsenigo, Simone and Palaj, Andrej and Pampuch, Timo and Panov, Alexey V. and Pärtel, Meelis and Pastor, Ada and Pauchard, Aníbal and Pauli, Harald and Pavelka, Marian and Pearse, William D. and Peichl, Matthias and Pellissier, Loïc and Penczykowski, Rachel M. and Penuelas, Josep and Petit Bon, Matteo and Petraglia, Alessandro and Phartyal, Shyam S. and Phoenix, Gareth K. and Pio, Casimiro and Pitacco, Andrea and Pitteloud, Camille and Plichta, Roman and Porro, Francesco and Portillo‐Estrada, Miguel and Poulenard, Jérôme and Poyatos, Rafael and Prokushkin, Anatoly S. and Puchalka, Radoslaw and Pușcaș, Mihai and Radujković, Dajana and Randall, Krystal and Ratier Backes, Amanda and Remmele, Sabine and Remmers, Wolfram and Renault, David and Risch, Anita C. and Rixen, Christian and Robinson, Sharon A. and Robroek, Bjorn J. M. and Rocha, Adrian V. and Rossi, Christian and Rossi, Graziano and Roupsard, Olivier and Rubtsov, Alexey V. and Saccone, Patrick and Sagot, Clotilde and Sallo Bravo, Jhonatan and Santos, Cinthya C. and Sarneel, Judith M. and Scharnweber, Tobias and Schmeddes, Jonas and Schmidt, Marius and Scholten, Thomas and Schuchardt, Max and Schwartz, Naomi and Scott, Tony and Seeber, Julia and Segalin de Andrade, Ana Cristina and Seipel, Tim and Semenchuk, Philipp and Senior, Rebecca A. and Serra‐Diaz, Josep M. and Sewerniak, Piotr and Shekhar, Ankit and Sidenko, Nikita V. and Siebicke, Lukas and Siegwart Collier, Laura and Simpson, Elizabeth and Siqueira, David P. and Sitková, Zuzana and Six, Johan and Smiljanic, Marko and Smith, Stuart W. and Smith‐Tripp, Sarah and Somers, Ben and Sørensen, Mia Vedel and Souza, José João L. L. and Souza, Bartolomeu Israel and Souza Dias, Arildo and Spasojevic, Marko J. and Speed, James D. M. and Spicher, Fabien and Stanisci, Angela and Steinbauer, Klaus and Steinbrecher, Rainer and Steinwandter, Michael and Stemkovski, Michael and Stephan, Jörg G. and Stiegler, Christian and Stoll, Stefan and Svátek, Martin and Svoboda, Miroslav and Tagesson, Torbern and Tanentzap, Andrew J. and Tanneberger, Franziska and Theurillat, Jean‐Paul and Thomas, Haydn J. D. and Thomas, Andrew D. and Tielbörger, Katja and Tomaselli, Marcello and Treier, Urs Albert and Trouillier, Mario and Turtureanu, Pavel Dan and Tutton, Rosamond and Tyystjärvi, Vilna A. and Ueyama, Masahito and Ujházy, Karol and Ujházyová, Mariana and Uogintas, Domas and Urban, Anastasiya V. and Urban, Josef and Urbaniak, Marek and Ursu, Tudor‐Mihai and Vaccari, Francesco Primo and Van de Vondel, Stijn and Brink, Liesbeth and Van Geel, Maarten and Vandvik, Vigdis and Vangansbeke, Pieter and Varlagin, Andrej and Veen, G. F. and Veenendaal, Elmar and Venn, Susanna E. and Verbeeck, Hans and Verbrugggen, Erik and Verheijen, Frank G. A. and Villar, Luis and Vitale, Luca and Vittoz, Pascal and Vives‐Ingla, Maria and Oppen, Jonathan and Walz, Josefine and Wang, Runxi and Wang, Yifeng and Way, Robert G. and Wedegärtner, Ronja E. M. and Weigel, Robert and Wild, Jan and Wilkinson, Matthew and Wilmking, Martin and Wingate, Lisa and Winkler, Manuela and Wipf, Sonja and Wohlfahrt, Georg and Xenakis, Georgios and Yang, Yan and Yu, Zicheng and Yu, Kailiang and Zellweger, Florian and Zhang, Jian and Zhang, Zhaochen and Zhao, Peng and Ziemblińska, Klaudia and Zimmermann, Reiner and Zong, Shengwei and Zyryanov, Viacheslav I. and Nijs, Ivan and Lenoir, Jonathan}},
  issn         = {{1354-1013}},
  journal      = {{GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{bioclimatic variables,global maps,microclimate,near-surface temperatures,soil-dwelling organisms,soil temperature,temperature offset,weather stations,LITTER DECOMPOSITION,CLIMATIC CONTROLS,PLANT-RESPONSES,SNOW-COVER,MICROCLIMATE,PERMAFROST,FOREST,SUITABILITY,MITIGATION,MOISTURE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{3110--3144}},
  title        = {{Global maps of soil temperature}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16060}},
  volume       = {{28}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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