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Capillary imbibition in cementitious materials : effect of salts and exposure condition

(2022) MATERIALS. 15(4).
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Abstract
Concrete structures are often exposed to harsh environmental conditions during their service life. Therefore, the investigation of transport properties and deterioration of concrete in different environments is an important topic. This paper reports the influence of salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) and exposure conditions (ideal laboratory (20 °C, 95% RH), a city and sea environment; including sheltered and exposed conditions) on capillary imbibition in cementitious materials with different water to cement ratios (0.4 and 0.6). First, the pore structure was assessed by water absorption under vacuum, torrent permeability, resistivity, and moisture content. The second part revolves around the capillary imbibition phenomenon with different imbibition liquids (water, NaCl, and Na2SO4). The results showed that, among the studied exposure conditions, sheltered conditions resulted in the largest porosity values and capillary imbibition rates (CIR). The influence of the imbibing liquid on the CIR depends on the w/c of the concrete. The CIR value for samples with a w/c of 0.4 is lower for Na2SO4 as imbibing liquid in comparison to water and NaCl. The sulfates might cause a pore blocking effect leading to a decreased CIR. For concrete with a w/c of 0.6, there was no significant difference between the different imbibition liquids. The influence of the pore blocking effect is probably smaller due to the larger porosity in this case. The findings of this research are important to understand the influence of real-life exposure conditions and therefore the influence of relative humidity, temperature, carbonation, and chloride ingress on the capillary imbibition phenomenon.
Keywords
General Materials Science, capillary imbibition, real-life exposure, porosity, concrete, CONCRETE, CARBONATION, ABSORPTION, STRENGTH, POROSITY, MODEL

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MLA
De Brabandere, Laurena, et al. “Capillary Imbibition in Cementitious Materials : Effect of Salts and Exposure Condition.” MATERIALS, vol. 15, no. 4, 2022, doi:10.3390/ma15041569.
APA
De Brabandere, L., Alderete, N. M., & De Belie, N. (2022). Capillary imbibition in cementitious materials : effect of salts and exposure condition. MATERIALS, 15(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041569
Chicago author-date
De Brabandere, Laurena, Natalia Mariel Alderete, and Nele De Belie. 2022. “Capillary Imbibition in Cementitious Materials : Effect of Salts and Exposure Condition.” MATERIALS 15 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041569.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Brabandere, Laurena, Natalia Mariel Alderete, and Nele De Belie. 2022. “Capillary Imbibition in Cementitious Materials : Effect of Salts and Exposure Condition.” MATERIALS 15 (4). doi:10.3390/ma15041569.
Vancouver
1.
De Brabandere L, Alderete NM, De Belie N. Capillary imbibition in cementitious materials : effect of salts and exposure condition. MATERIALS. 2022;15(4).
IEEE
[1]
L. De Brabandere, N. M. Alderete, and N. De Belie, “Capillary imbibition in cementitious materials : effect of salts and exposure condition,” MATERIALS, vol. 15, no. 4, 2022.
@article{8742528,
  abstract     = {{Concrete structures are often exposed to harsh environmental conditions during their service life. Therefore, the investigation of transport properties and deterioration of concrete in different environments is an important topic. This paper reports the influence of salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) and exposure conditions (ideal laboratory (20 °C, 95% RH), a city and sea environment; including sheltered and exposed conditions) on capillary imbibition in cementitious materials with different water to cement ratios (0.4 and 0.6). First, the pore structure was assessed by water absorption under vacuum, torrent permeability, resistivity, and moisture content. The second part revolves around the capillary imbibition phenomenon with different imbibition liquids (water, NaCl, and Na2SO4). The results showed that, among the studied exposure conditions, sheltered conditions resulted in the largest porosity values and capillary imbibition rates (CIR). The influence of the imbibing liquid on the CIR depends on the w/c of the concrete. The CIR value for samples with a w/c of 0.4 is lower for Na2SO4 as imbibing liquid in comparison to water and NaCl. The sulfates might cause a pore blocking effect leading to a decreased CIR. For concrete with a w/c of 0.6, there was no significant difference between the different imbibition liquids. The influence of the pore blocking effect is probably smaller due to the larger porosity in this case. The findings of this research are important to understand the influence of real-life exposure conditions and therefore the influence of relative humidity, temperature, carbonation, and chloride ingress on the capillary imbibition phenomenon.}},
  articleno    = {{1569}},
  author       = {{De Brabandere, Laurena and Alderete, Natalia Mariel and De Belie, Nele}},
  issn         = {{1996-1944}},
  journal      = {{MATERIALS}},
  keywords     = {{General Materials Science,capillary imbibition,real-life exposure,porosity,concrete,CONCRETE,CARBONATION,ABSORPTION,STRENGTH,POROSITY,MODEL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{4}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{Capillary imbibition in cementitious materials : effect of salts and exposure condition}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15041569}},
  volume       = {{15}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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