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Chain elongation may occur in protein mixed-culture fermentation without supplementing electron donor compounds

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Abstract
This study focuses on verifying the occurrence of elongation processes during protein mixed culture fermentation, without the supplementation of electron donor compounds. During casein mixed-culture fermentation at pH 5, it was observed that longer chain volatile fatty acid production increased, which could not be justified by the associated amino acid consumption. Consequently, the occurrence of chain elongation processes was hypothesized. To verify this hypothesis, three casein batch tests, with and without acetic acid initial supplementation, were performed at pH 5. The results suggest that acetic and propionic acids are indeed consumed to selectively generate n-valeric acid through the coupling with electron donor amino acids, whose consumption was further verified through the amino acid analysis. Prolonged simultaneous availability of suitable amino acids and short chain volatile fatty acids and an acid equivalent concentration threshold were identified as key parameters for the occurrence of chain elongation. The supplementation of acetic acid at the beginning of the test changed the selectivity of the elongation process, promoting n-butyric and iso-valeric production. The associated mechanisms were preliminary conceptualized, constituting a first step for further studies on the subject. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of chain elongation processes during protein mixed culture fermentation without electron donor supplementation.
Keywords
Resource recovery, Amino acids, Biorefinery, Carboxylate platform, Chain elongation, Protein waste, MUNICIPAL SOLID-WASTE, EUBACTERIUM-PYRUVATIVORANS, ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS, REACTOR MICROBIOMES, ACID PRODUCTION, FATTY-ACIDS, CAPROATE, ACETATE, RECOVERY

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MLA
Bevilacqua, R., et al. “Chain Elongation May Occur in Protein Mixed-Culture Fermentation without Supplementing Electron Donor Compounds.” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 10, no. 1, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.jece.2021.106943.
APA
Bevilacqua, R., Regueira López, A., Mauricio-Iglesias, M., Lema, J. M., & Carballa, M. (2022). Chain elongation may occur in protein mixed-culture fermentation without supplementing electron donor compounds. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.106943
Chicago author-date
Bevilacqua, R., Alberte Regueira López, M. Mauricio-Iglesias, J. M. Lema, and M. Carballa. 2022. “Chain Elongation May Occur in Protein Mixed-Culture Fermentation without Supplementing Electron Donor Compounds.” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.106943.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bevilacqua, R., Alberte Regueira López, M. Mauricio-Iglesias, J. M. Lema, and M. Carballa. 2022. “Chain Elongation May Occur in Protein Mixed-Culture Fermentation without Supplementing Electron Donor Compounds.” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 10 (1). doi:10.1016/j.jece.2021.106943.
Vancouver
1.
Bevilacqua R, Regueira López A, Mauricio-Iglesias M, Lema JM, Carballa M. Chain elongation may occur in protein mixed-culture fermentation without supplementing electron donor compounds. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. 2022;10(1).
IEEE
[1]
R. Bevilacqua, A. Regueira López, M. Mauricio-Iglesias, J. M. Lema, and M. Carballa, “Chain elongation may occur in protein mixed-culture fermentation without supplementing electron donor compounds,” JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 10, no. 1, 2022.
@article{8742455,
  abstract     = {{This study focuses on verifying the occurrence of elongation processes during protein mixed culture fermentation, without the supplementation of electron donor compounds. During casein mixed-culture fermentation at pH 5, it was observed that longer chain volatile fatty acid production increased, which could not be justified by the associated amino acid consumption. Consequently, the occurrence of chain elongation processes was hypothesized. To verify this hypothesis, three casein batch tests, with and without acetic acid initial supplementation, were performed at pH 5. The results suggest that acetic and propionic acids are indeed consumed to selectively generate n-valeric acid through the coupling with electron donor amino acids, whose consumption was further verified through the amino acid analysis. Prolonged simultaneous availability of suitable amino acids and short chain volatile fatty acids and an acid equivalent concentration threshold were identified as key parameters for the occurrence of chain elongation. The supplementation of acetic acid at the beginning of the test changed the selectivity of the elongation process, promoting n-butyric and iso-valeric production. The associated mechanisms were preliminary conceptualized, constituting a first step for further studies on the subject. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of chain elongation processes during protein mixed culture fermentation without electron donor supplementation.}},
  articleno    = {{106943}},
  author       = {{Bevilacqua, R. and Regueira López, Alberte and Mauricio-Iglesias, M. and Lema, J. M. and Carballa, M.}},
  issn         = {{2213-2929}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING}},
  keywords     = {{Resource recovery,Amino acids,Biorefinery,Carboxylate platform,Chain elongation,Protein waste,MUNICIPAL SOLID-WASTE,EUBACTERIUM-PYRUVATIVORANS,ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS,REACTOR MICROBIOMES,ACID PRODUCTION,FATTY-ACIDS,CAPROATE,ACETATE,RECOVERY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{8}},
  title        = {{Chain elongation may occur in protein mixed-culture fermentation without supplementing electron donor compounds}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.106943}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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