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Biomechanical aspects of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system

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Abstract
The presence of lymph node metastasis is a robust adverse prognostic marker in cancer patients. Solid cancers coopt the existing lymphatic system and induce lymphangiogenesis in the process of lymphatic metastatic spread. While the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that orchestrate lymphatic metastasis have been studied in detail, much less is known about the biomechanical properties of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system. Over the past decade, the insight has evolved that physical properties such as increased matrix stiffness and elevated interstitial fluid and solid pressures are hallmarks of the cancer microenvironment which contribute to clinical phenotypes such as invasiveness, propensity to metastasize, and treatment response. Although the role of mechanical drivers in the pathophysiology of lymphatic metastasis has only begun to be unraveled, the available data suggest that lymphatic seeding is accompanied and facilitated by altered biomechanical properties such as lymphatic fluid flow, microvessel and lymph node pressures, and nodal tissue stiffness. The availability of computational models, advanced microfluidic systems, and progress in noninvasive methods to measure stromal mechanical properties offer significant opportunities for multidisciplinary research endeavors in the field of lymphatic metastasis.

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MLA
Ceelen, Wim, et al. “Biomechanical Aspects of the Normal and Cancer-Associated Lymphatic System.” The Lymphatic System in Colorectal Cancer : Basic Concepts, Pathology, Imaging, and Treatment Perspectives, edited by Wim Ceelen, Academic Press, 2022, pp. 21–41, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-824297-1.00006-3.
APA
Ceelen, W., Salavati, H., Adeli Koudehi, G., Silvera Delgado, C. A., Segers, P., & Debbaut, C. (2022). Biomechanical aspects of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system. In W. Ceelen (Ed.), The lymphatic system in colorectal cancer : basic concepts, pathology, imaging, and treatment perspectives (pp. 21–41). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-824297-1.00006-3
Chicago author-date
Ceelen, Wim, Hooman Salavati, Ghazal Adeli Koudehi, Carlos Alejandro Silvera Delgado, Patrick Segers, and Charlotte Debbaut. 2022. “Biomechanical Aspects of the Normal and Cancer-Associated Lymphatic System.” In The Lymphatic System in Colorectal Cancer : Basic Concepts, Pathology, Imaging, and Treatment Perspectives, edited by Wim Ceelen, 21–41. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-824297-1.00006-3.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ceelen, Wim, Hooman Salavati, Ghazal Adeli Koudehi, Carlos Alejandro Silvera Delgado, Patrick Segers, and Charlotte Debbaut. 2022. “Biomechanical Aspects of the Normal and Cancer-Associated Lymphatic System.” In The Lymphatic System in Colorectal Cancer : Basic Concepts, Pathology, Imaging, and Treatment Perspectives, ed by. Wim Ceelen, 21–41. Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-824297-1.00006-3.
Vancouver
1.
Ceelen W, Salavati H, Adeli Koudehi G, Silvera Delgado CA, Segers P, Debbaut C. Biomechanical aspects of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system. In: Ceelen W, editor. The lymphatic system in colorectal cancer : basic concepts, pathology, imaging, and treatment perspectives. Academic Press; 2022. p. 21–41.
IEEE
[1]
W. Ceelen, H. Salavati, G. Adeli Koudehi, C. A. Silvera Delgado, P. Segers, and C. Debbaut, “Biomechanical aspects of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system,” in The lymphatic system in colorectal cancer : basic concepts, pathology, imaging, and treatment perspectives, W. Ceelen, Ed. Academic Press, 2022, pp. 21–41.
@incollection{8741751,
  abstract     = {{The presence of lymph node metastasis is a robust adverse prognostic marker in cancer patients. Solid cancers coopt the existing lymphatic system and induce lymphangiogenesis in the process of lymphatic metastatic spread. While the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that orchestrate lymphatic metastasis have been studied in detail, much less is known about the biomechanical properties of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system. Over the past decade, the insight has evolved that physical properties such as increased matrix stiffness and elevated interstitial fluid and solid pressures are hallmarks of the cancer microenvironment which contribute to clinical phenotypes such as invasiveness, propensity to metastasize, and treatment response. Although the role of mechanical drivers in the pathophysiology of lymphatic metastasis has only begun to be unraveled, the available data suggest that lymphatic seeding is accompanied and facilitated by altered biomechanical properties such as lymphatic fluid flow, microvessel and lymph node pressures, and nodal tissue stiffness. The availability of computational models, advanced microfluidic systems, and progress in noninvasive methods to measure stromal mechanical properties offer significant opportunities for multidisciplinary research endeavors in the field of lymphatic metastasis.}},
  author       = {{Ceelen, Wim and Salavati, Hooman and Adeli Koudehi, Ghazal and Silvera Delgado, Carlos Alejandro and Segers, Patrick and Debbaut, Charlotte}},
  booktitle    = {{The lymphatic system in colorectal cancer : basic concepts, pathology, imaging, and treatment perspectives}},
  editor       = {{Ceelen, Wim}},
  isbn         = {{9780128242971}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{21--41}},
  publisher    = {{Academic Press}},
  title        = {{Biomechanical aspects of the normal and cancer-associated lymphatic system}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-824297-1.00006-3}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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