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ForestTemp : sub‐canopy microclimate temperatures of European forests

(2021) GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY. 27(23). p.6307-6319
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Abstract
Ecological research heavily relies on coarse-gridded climate data based on standardized temperature measurements recorded at 2 m height in open landscapes. However, many organisms experience environmental conditions that differ substantially from those captured by these macroclimatic (i.e. free air) temperature grids. In forests, the tree canopy functions as a thermal insulator and buffers sub-canopy microclimatic conditions, thereby affecting biological and ecological processes. To improve the assessment of climatic conditions and climate-change-related impacts on forest-floor biodiversity and functioning, high-resolution temperature grids reflecting forest microclimates are thus urgently needed. Combining more than 1200 time series of in situ near-surface forest temperature with topographical, biological and macroclimatic variables in a machine learning model, we predicted the mean monthly offset between sub-canopy temperature at 15 cm above the surface and free-air temperature over the period 2000-2020 at a spatial resolution of 25 m across Europe. This offset was used to evaluate the difference between microclimate and macroclimate across space and seasons and finally enabled us to calculate mean annual and monthly temperatures for European forest understories. We found that sub-canopy air temperatures differ substantially from free-air temperatures, being on average 2.1 degrees C (standard deviation +/- 1.6 degrees C) lower in summer and 2.0 degrees C higher (+/- 0.7 degrees C) in winter across Europe. Additionally, our high-resolution maps expose considerable microclimatic variation within landscapes, not captured by the gridded macroclimatic products. The provided forest sub-canopy temperature maps will enable future research to model below-canopy biological processes and patterns, as well as species distributions more accurately.
Keywords
biodiversity, boosted regression trees, climate change, ecosystem processes, forest microclimate, SoilTemp, species distributions, thermal buffering, CLIMATE, MODELS, SNOW, VULNERABILITY, CHALLENGES

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MLA
Haesen, Stef, et al. “ForestTemp : Sub‐canopy Microclimate Temperatures of European Forests.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol. 27, no. 23, 2021, pp. 6307–19, doi:10.1111/gcb.15892.
APA
Haesen, S., Lembrechts, J. J., De Frenne, P., Lenoir, J., Aalto, J., Ashcroft, M. B., … Van Meerbeek, K. (2021). ForestTemp : sub‐canopy microclimate temperatures of European forests. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, 27(23), 6307–6319. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15892
Chicago author-date
Haesen, Stef, Jonas J. Lembrechts, Pieter De Frenne, Jonathan Lenoir, Juha Aalto, Michael B. Ashcroft, Martin Kopecký, et al. 2021. “ForestTemp : Sub‐canopy Microclimate Temperatures of European Forests.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 27 (23): 6307–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15892.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Haesen, Stef, Jonas J. Lembrechts, Pieter De Frenne, Jonathan Lenoir, Juha Aalto, Michael B. Ashcroft, Martin Kopecký, Miska Luoto, Ilya Maclean, Ivan Nijs, Pekka Niittynen, Johan Hoogen, Nicola Arriga, Josef Brůna, Nina Buchmann, Marek Čiliak, Alessio Collalti, Emiel De Lombaerde, Patrice Descombes, Mana Gharun, Ignacio Goded, Sanne Govaert, Caroline Greiser, Achim Grelle, Carsten Gruening, Lucia Hederová, Kristoffer Hylander, Jürgen Kreyling, Bart Kruijt, Martin Macek, František Máliš, Matěj Man, Giovanni Manca, Radim Matula, Camille Meeussen, Sonia Merinero, Stefano Minerbi, Leonardo Montagnani, Lena Muffler, Romà Ogaya, Josep Penuelas, Roman Plichta, Miguel Portillo‐Estrada, Jonas Schmeddes, Ankit Shekhar, Fabien Spicher, Mariana Ujházyová, Pieter Vangansbeke, Robert Weigel, Jan Wild, Florian Zellweger, and Koenraad Van Meerbeek. 2021. “ForestTemp : Sub‐canopy Microclimate Temperatures of European Forests.” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 27 (23): 6307–6319. doi:10.1111/gcb.15892.
Vancouver
1.
Haesen S, Lembrechts JJ, De Frenne P, Lenoir J, Aalto J, Ashcroft MB, et al. ForestTemp : sub‐canopy microclimate temperatures of European forests. GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY. 2021;27(23):6307–19.
IEEE
[1]
S. Haesen et al., “ForestTemp : sub‐canopy microclimate temperatures of European forests,” GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 6307–6319, 2021.
@article{8741386,
  abstract     = {{Ecological research heavily relies on coarse-gridded climate data based on standardized temperature measurements recorded at 2 m height in open landscapes. However, many organisms experience environmental conditions that differ substantially from those captured by these macroclimatic (i.e. free air) temperature grids. In forests, the tree canopy functions as a thermal insulator and buffers sub-canopy microclimatic conditions, thereby affecting biological and ecological processes. To improve the assessment of climatic conditions and climate-change-related impacts on forest-floor biodiversity and functioning, high-resolution temperature grids reflecting forest microclimates are thus urgently needed. Combining more than 1200 time series of in situ near-surface forest temperature with topographical, biological and macroclimatic variables in a machine learning model, we predicted the mean monthly offset between sub-canopy temperature at 15 cm above the surface and free-air temperature over the period 2000-2020 at a spatial resolution of 25 m across Europe. This offset was used to evaluate the difference between microclimate and macroclimate across space and seasons and finally enabled us to calculate mean annual and monthly temperatures for European forest understories. We found that sub-canopy air temperatures differ substantially from free-air temperatures, being on average 2.1 degrees C (standard deviation +/- 1.6 degrees C) lower in summer and 2.0 degrees C higher (+/- 0.7 degrees C) in winter across Europe. Additionally, our high-resolution maps expose considerable microclimatic variation within landscapes, not captured by the gridded macroclimatic products. The provided forest sub-canopy temperature maps will enable future research to model below-canopy biological processes and patterns, as well as species distributions more accurately.}},
  author       = {{Haesen, Stef and Lembrechts, Jonas J. and De Frenne, Pieter and Lenoir, Jonathan and Aalto, Juha and Ashcroft, Michael B. and Kopecký, Martin and Luoto, Miska and Maclean, Ilya and Nijs, Ivan and Niittynen, Pekka and Hoogen, Johan and Arriga, Nicola and Brůna, Josef and Buchmann, Nina and Čiliak, Marek and Collalti, Alessio and De Lombaerde, Emiel and Descombes, Patrice and Gharun, Mana and Goded, Ignacio and Govaert, Sanne and Greiser, Caroline and Grelle, Achim and Gruening, Carsten and Hederová, Lucia and Hylander, Kristoffer and Kreyling, Jürgen and Kruijt, Bart and Macek, Martin and Máliš, František and Man, Matěj and Manca, Giovanni and Matula, Radim and Meeussen, Camille and Merinero, Sonia and Minerbi, Stefano and Montagnani, Leonardo and Muffler, Lena and Ogaya, Romà and Penuelas, Josep and Plichta, Roman and Portillo‐Estrada, Miguel and Schmeddes, Jonas and Shekhar, Ankit and Spicher, Fabien and Ujházyová, Mariana and Vangansbeke, Pieter and Weigel, Robert and Wild, Jan and Zellweger, Florian and Van Meerbeek, Koenraad}},
  issn         = {{1354-1013}},
  journal      = {{GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{biodiversity,boosted regression trees,climate change,ecosystem processes,forest microclimate,SoilTemp,species distributions,thermal buffering,CLIMATE,MODELS,SNOW,VULNERABILITY,CHALLENGES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{23}},
  pages        = {{6307--6319}},
  title        = {{ForestTemp : sub‐canopy microclimate temperatures of European forests}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15892}},
  volume       = {{27}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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