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Histological tissue healing following high-power laser treatment in a model of suspensory ligament branch injury

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Abstract
Background High-power laser therapy gained popularity recently as a regenerative treatment for tendinitis and desmitis in the horse. However, studies evaluating the effects of laser therapy on tissue repair at the histological level in large mammals are lacking. Objectives To evaluate the effects of high-power laser therapy on suspensory desmitis healing, using a model of suspensory ligament branch injury. Study design In vivo experiments. Methods Standardised lesions were surgically induced in all four lateral suspensory branches of 12 healthy Warmblood horses. Laser therapy (class 4, 15W) was applied daily on two of four induced lesions for four consecutive weeks. Horses were randomly assigned to either short-term study (horses were sacrificed after 4 weeks) or long-term study (6 months). Suspensory ligament samples were scored after staining with haematoxylin-eosin and immunostaining for collagen 1- collagen 3- and factor VIII. Results In the short-term study, significantly better (lower) scores for variation in density (17% above cut-off score in treated lesions vs. 31% above cut-off score in controls, P = .03), shape of nuclei (54% vs 92%, P = .02), fibre alignment (32% vs 75%, P = .003) and fibre structure (38% vs 71%, P = .02) were found in laser-treated lesions when compared to controls. Collagen 3 expression was significantly higher (32% vs 19%, P = .006) in control lesions. In both short- and long-term studies combined, parameters lesion size (44% vs 56%, P = .02) and shape of nuclei (53% vs 84%, P = .05) scored significantly better in treated lesions. Long-term, significantly better (lower) scores were found in the laser-treated group for lesion size (15% vs 45%, P = .008) and a higher percentage above cut-off score for density of the nuclei (27% vs 9%, P = .02), compared to controls. Main limitations The model of suspensory branch injury is not an exact representation of clinical overstrain lesions. Conclusions These results suggest that high-power laser therapy enables better lesion healing than conservative treatment.
Keywords
INDUCED CORE LESIONS, ACHILLES TENDINITIS, LEVEL, TENDINOPATHY, THERAPY, IRRADIATION, HORSES, REPAIR, TENDONS, collagen, fibre, histology, horse, ligament, tendon

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Citation

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MLA
Pluim, Mathilde, et al. “Histological Tissue Healing Following High-Power Laser Treatment in a Model of Suspensory Ligament Branch Injury.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, 2022, doi:10.1111/evj.13556.
APA
Pluim, M., Heier, A., Plomp, S., Boshuizen, B., Grone, A., van Weeren, R., … Delesalle, C. (2022). Histological tissue healing following high-power laser treatment in a model of suspensory ligament branch injury. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13556
Chicago author-date
Pluim, Mathilde, Annabelle Heier, Saskia Plomp, Berit Boshuizen, Andrea Grone, Rene van Weeren, Katrien Vanderperren, et al. 2022. “Histological Tissue Healing Following High-Power Laser Treatment in a Model of Suspensory Ligament Branch Injury.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13556.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Pluim, Mathilde, Annabelle Heier, Saskia Plomp, Berit Boshuizen, Andrea Grone, Rene van Weeren, Katrien Vanderperren, Ann Martens, Jeroen Dewulf, Ilias Chantziaras, Marc Koene, Antonio Luciani, Maarten Oosterlinck, Leen Van Brantegem, and Catherine Delesalle. 2022. “Histological Tissue Healing Following High-Power Laser Treatment in a Model of Suspensory Ligament Branch Injury.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. doi:10.1111/evj.13556.
Vancouver
1.
Pluim M, Heier A, Plomp S, Boshuizen B, Grone A, van Weeren R, et al. Histological tissue healing following high-power laser treatment in a model of suspensory ligament branch injury. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 2022;
IEEE
[1]
M. Pluim et al., “Histological tissue healing following high-power laser treatment in a model of suspensory ligament branch injury,” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, 2022.
@article{8741194,
  abstract     = {{Background
High-power laser therapy gained popularity recently as a regenerative treatment for tendinitis and desmitis in the horse. However, studies evaluating the effects of laser therapy on tissue repair at the histological level in large mammals are lacking.

Objectives
To evaluate the effects of high-power laser therapy on suspensory desmitis healing, using a model of suspensory ligament branch injury.

Study design
In vivo experiments.

Methods
Standardised lesions were surgically induced in all four lateral suspensory branches of 12 healthy Warmblood horses. Laser therapy (class 4, 15W) was applied daily on two of four induced lesions for four consecutive weeks. Horses were randomly assigned to either short-term study (horses were sacrificed after 4 weeks) or long-term study (6 months). Suspensory ligament samples were scored after staining with haematoxylin-eosin and immunostaining for collagen 1- collagen 3- and factor VIII.

Results
In the short-term study, significantly better (lower) scores for variation in density (17% above cut-off score in treated lesions vs. 31% above cut-off score in controls, P = .03), shape of nuclei (54% vs 92%, P = .02), fibre alignment (32% vs 75%, P = .003) and fibre structure (38% vs 71%, P = .02) were found in laser-treated lesions when compared to controls. Collagen 3 expression was significantly higher (32% vs 19%, P = .006) in control lesions. In both short- and long-term studies combined, parameters lesion size (44% vs 56%, P = .02) and shape of nuclei (53% vs 84%, P = .05) scored significantly better in treated lesions. Long-term, significantly better (lower) scores were found in the laser-treated group for lesion size (15% vs 45%, P = .008) and a higher percentage above cut-off score for density of the nuclei (27% vs 9%, P = .02), compared to controls.

Main limitations
The model of suspensory branch injury is not an exact representation of clinical overstrain lesions.

Conclusions
These results suggest that high-power laser therapy enables better lesion healing than conservative treatment.}},
  author       = {{Pluim, Mathilde and Heier, Annabelle and Plomp, Saskia and Boshuizen, Berit and Grone, Andrea and van Weeren, Rene and Vanderperren, Katrien and Martens, Ann and Dewulf, Jeroen and Chantziaras, Ilias and Koene, Marc and Luciani, Antonio and Oosterlinck, Maarten and Van Brantegem, Leen and Delesalle, Catherine}},
  issn         = {{0425-1644}},
  journal      = {{EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{INDUCED CORE LESIONS,ACHILLES TENDINITIS,LEVEL,TENDINOPATHY,THERAPY,IRRADIATION,HORSES,REPAIR,TENDONS,collagen,fibre,histology,horse,ligament,tendon}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{Histological tissue healing following high-power laser treatment in a model of suspensory ligament branch injury}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13556}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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