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Spin freezing and its impact on pore size, tortuosity and solid state

Joris Lammens (UGent) , Niloofar Moazami Goudarzi (UGent) , Laurens Leys (UGent) , Gust Nuytten (UGent) , Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal (UGent) , Chris Vervaet (UGent) , Matthieu Boone (UGent) and Thomas De Beer (UGent)
(2021) PHARMACEUTICS. 13(12).
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Abstract
Spin freeze-drying, as a part of a continuous freeze-drying technology, is associated with a much higher drying rate and a higher level of process control in comparison with batch freeze-drying. However, the impact of the spin freezing rate on the dried product layer characteristics is not well understood at present. This research focuses on the relation between spin-freezing and pore size, pore shape, dried product mass transfer resistance and solid state of the dried product layer. This was thoroughly investigated via high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (mu CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal imaging and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was concluded that slow spin-freezing rates resulted in the formation of highly tortuous structures with a high dried-product mass-transfer resistance, while fast spin-freezing rates resulted in lamellar structures with a low tortuosity and low dried-product mass-transfer resistance.
Keywords
continuous freeze-drying, mu CT, spin-freezing, freezing rate, PRIMARY DRYING RATE, MASS-TRANSFER, PROTEINS, RECONSTITUTION, TEMPERATURE, FORMULATION, PART, LYOPHILIZATION, STABILIZATION, MECHANISMS

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MLA
Lammens, Joris, et al. “Spin Freezing and Its Impact on Pore Size, Tortuosity and Solid State.” PHARMACEUTICS, vol. 13, no. 12, 2021, doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics13122126.
APA
Lammens, J., Moazami Goudarzi, N., Leys, L., Nuytten, G., Van Bockstal, P.-J., Vervaet, C., … De Beer, T. (2021). Spin freezing and its impact on pore size, tortuosity and solid state. PHARMACEUTICS, 13(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122126
Chicago author-date
Lammens, Joris, Niloofar Moazami Goudarzi, Laurens Leys, Gust Nuytten, Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal, Chris Vervaet, Matthieu Boone, and Thomas De Beer. 2021. “Spin Freezing and Its Impact on Pore Size, Tortuosity and Solid State.” PHARMACEUTICS 13 (12). https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122126.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lammens, Joris, Niloofar Moazami Goudarzi, Laurens Leys, Gust Nuytten, Pieter-Jan Van Bockstal, Chris Vervaet, Matthieu Boone, and Thomas De Beer. 2021. “Spin Freezing and Its Impact on Pore Size, Tortuosity and Solid State.” PHARMACEUTICS 13 (12). doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics13122126.
Vancouver
1.
Lammens J, Moazami Goudarzi N, Leys L, Nuytten G, Van Bockstal P-J, Vervaet C, et al. Spin freezing and its impact on pore size, tortuosity and solid state. PHARMACEUTICS. 2021;13(12).
IEEE
[1]
J. Lammens et al., “Spin freezing and its impact on pore size, tortuosity and solid state,” PHARMACEUTICS, vol. 13, no. 12, 2021.
@article{8739730,
  abstract     = {{Spin freeze-drying, as a part of a continuous freeze-drying technology, is associated with a much higher drying rate and a higher level of process control in comparison with batch freeze-drying. However, the impact of the spin freezing rate on the dried product layer characteristics is not well understood at present. This research focuses on the relation between spin-freezing and pore size, pore shape, dried product mass transfer resistance and solid state of the dried product layer. This was thoroughly investigated via high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (mu CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal imaging and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was concluded that slow spin-freezing rates resulted in the formation of highly tortuous structures with a high dried-product mass-transfer resistance, while fast spin-freezing rates resulted in lamellar structures with a low tortuosity and low dried-product mass-transfer resistance.}},
  articleno    = {{2126}},
  author       = {{Lammens, Joris and Moazami Goudarzi, Niloofar and Leys, Laurens and Nuytten, Gust and Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan and Vervaet, Chris and Boone, Matthieu and De Beer, Thomas}},
  issn         = {{1999-4923}},
  journal      = {{PHARMACEUTICS}},
  keywords     = {{continuous freeze-drying,mu CT,spin-freezing,freezing rate,PRIMARY DRYING RATE,MASS-TRANSFER,PROTEINS,RECONSTITUTION,TEMPERATURE,FORMULATION,PART,LYOPHILIZATION,STABILIZATION,MECHANISMS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Spin freezing and its impact on pore size, tortuosity and solid state}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122126}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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