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Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked Sardinella sp. in Ghana : impact of an improved oven on public health protection

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Abstract
An improved fish smoking oven called FAO-Thiaroye Technique (FTT) has been introduced in Ghana and other countries in the Global South as a technical intervention for the high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in traditionally smoked fish produced in those regions. This study evaluated the extent to which the intervention reduces consumer exposure to PAHs (considering benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] as a marker) in smoked fish, using Ghana as a case. Smoked Sardinella sp. were sampled from two traditional ovens (Chorkor smoker and metal drum oven) and the FTT and their PAH levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples of the product were also purchased from informal markets in three selected regions of Ghana and analyzed for their PAH levels. Cross-sectional consumer surveys were conducted in the selected regions to determine intakes of the commodity. A probabilistic risk assessment of PAH was then done by the margin of exposure (MoE) approach. BaP MoE as low as 1,060 and 752 were obtained for products from the traditional ovens and the informal markets, respectively, whereas the lowest value for FTT products was approximately 161,000. MoE values less than 10,000 were considered to denote a serious public health concern requiring risk management action. Therefore, the findings suggest that there is a potential health concern of high consumer exposure to PAHs in traditionally smoked fish in Ghana, and that the FTT is a technically viable intervention for the problem.
Keywords
CONTAMINATION, SMOKING, FOOD, METABOLITES, CARCINOGENS, EXPOSURE, FISH, Fish smoking ovens, food safety, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk, assessment

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MLA
Bomfeh, Kennedy, et al. “Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Smoked Sardinella Sp. in Ghana : Impact of an Improved Oven on Public Health Protection.” RISK ANALYSIS, 2022, doi:10.1111/risa.13836.
APA
Bomfeh, K., Jacxsens, L., Amoa-Awua, W. K., Gamarro, E. G., Ouadi, Y. D., & De Meulenaer, B. (2022). Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked Sardinella sp. in Ghana : impact of an improved oven on public health protection. RISK ANALYSIS. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13836
Chicago author-date
Bomfeh, Kennedy, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Wisdom Kofi Amoa-Awua, Esther Garrido Gamarro, Yvette Diei Ouadi, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2022. “Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Smoked Sardinella Sp. in Ghana : Impact of an Improved Oven on Public Health Protection.” RISK ANALYSIS. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13836.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bomfeh, Kennedy, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Wisdom Kofi Amoa-Awua, Esther Garrido Gamarro, Yvette Diei Ouadi, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2022. “Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Smoked Sardinella Sp. in Ghana : Impact of an Improved Oven on Public Health Protection.” RISK ANALYSIS. doi:10.1111/risa.13836.
Vancouver
1.
Bomfeh K, Jacxsens L, Amoa-Awua WK, Gamarro EG, Ouadi YD, De Meulenaer B. Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked Sardinella sp. in Ghana : impact of an improved oven on public health protection. RISK ANALYSIS. 2022;
IEEE
[1]
K. Bomfeh, L. Jacxsens, W. K. Amoa-Awua, E. G. Gamarro, Y. D. Ouadi, and B. De Meulenaer, “Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked Sardinella sp. in Ghana : impact of an improved oven on public health protection,” RISK ANALYSIS, 2022.
@article{8738316,
  abstract     = {{An improved fish smoking oven called FAO-Thiaroye Technique (FTT) has been introduced in Ghana and other countries in the Global South as a technical intervention for the high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in traditionally smoked fish produced in those regions. This study evaluated the extent to which the intervention reduces consumer exposure to PAHs (considering benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] as a marker) in smoked fish, using Ghana as a case. Smoked Sardinella sp. were sampled from two traditional ovens (Chorkor smoker and metal drum oven) and the FTT and their PAH levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples of the product were also purchased from informal markets in three selected regions of Ghana and analyzed for their PAH levels. Cross-sectional consumer surveys were conducted in the selected regions to determine intakes of the commodity. A probabilistic risk assessment of PAH was then done by the margin of exposure (MoE) approach. BaP MoE as low as 1,060 and 752 were obtained for products from the traditional ovens and the informal markets, respectively, whereas the lowest value for FTT products was approximately 161,000. MoE values less than 10,000 were considered to denote a serious public health concern requiring risk management action. Therefore, the findings suggest that there is a potential health concern of high consumer exposure to PAHs in traditionally smoked fish in Ghana, and that the FTT is a technically viable intervention for the problem.}},
  author       = {{Bomfeh, Kennedy and Jacxsens, Liesbeth and Amoa-Awua, Wisdom Kofi and Gamarro, Esther Garrido and Ouadi, Yvette Diei and De Meulenaer, Bruno}},
  issn         = {{0272-4332}},
  journal      = {{RISK ANALYSIS}},
  keywords     = {{CONTAMINATION,SMOKING,FOOD,METABOLITES,CARCINOGENS,EXPOSURE,FISH,Fish smoking ovens,food safety,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,risk,assessment}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked Sardinella sp. in Ghana : impact of an improved oven on public health protection}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/risa.13836}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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