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The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing

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Abstract
Armed forces often rely on strict hierarchical organization, where people are required to follow orders. In two cross-sectional studies, we investigate whether or not working in a military context influences the sense of agency and outcome processing, and how different durations (junior cadets vs senior cadets) and types (cadets vs privates) of military experience may modulate these effects. Participants could administer painful electrical shocks to a 'victim' in exchange for money, either by their own free choice, or following orders of the experimenter. Results indicate that working in a strictly hierarchical structure may have a generalized negative impact on one's own sense of agency and outcome processing by reducing it, even when participants could freely decide their action. However, trained officers showed an enhanced sense of agency and outcome processing. This study offers insights on the potential for training the sense of agency and outcome processing. Working in military structures implies a reduction in individual autonomy, in which agents must comply with hierarchical orders. Here, the authors show that working within such a structure is associated with a reduced sense of agency and outcome processing for junior cadets, but this relationship is absent in trained officers.
Keywords
SUPPLEMENTARY, EXPERIENCE, RESPONSES, IMPLICIT, MODEL

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MLA
Caspar, Emilie, et al. “The Effect of Military Training on the Sense of Agency and Outcome Processing.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 11, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18152-x.
APA
Caspar, E., Lo Bue, S., Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama, P. A., Haggard, P., & Cleeremans, A. (2020). The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18152-x
Chicago author-date
Caspar, Emilie, Salvatore Lo Bue, Pedro A. Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama, Patrick Haggard, and Axel Cleeremans. 2020. “The Effect of Military Training on the Sense of Agency and Outcome Processing.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18152-x.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Caspar, Emilie, Salvatore Lo Bue, Pedro A. Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama, Patrick Haggard, and Axel Cleeremans. 2020. “The Effect of Military Training on the Sense of Agency and Outcome Processing.” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 11 (1). doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18152-x.
Vancouver
1.
Caspar E, Lo Bue S, Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama PA, Haggard P, Cleeremans A. The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS. 2020;11(1).
IEEE
[1]
E. Caspar, S. Lo Bue, P. A. Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama, P. Haggard, and A. Cleeremans, “The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing,” NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, vol. 11, no. 1, 2020.
@article{8737984,
  abstract     = {{Armed forces often rely on strict hierarchical organization, where people are required to follow orders. In two cross-sectional studies, we investigate whether or not working in a military context influences the sense of agency and outcome processing, and how different durations (junior cadets vs senior cadets) and types (cadets vs privates) of military experience may modulate these effects. Participants could administer painful electrical shocks to a 'victim' in exchange for money, either by their own free choice, or following orders of the experimenter. Results indicate that working in a strictly hierarchical structure may have a generalized negative impact on one's own sense of agency and outcome processing by reducing it, even when participants could freely decide their action. However, trained officers showed an enhanced sense of agency and outcome processing. This study offers insights on the potential for training the sense of agency and outcome processing. Working in military structures implies a reduction in individual autonomy, in which agents must comply with hierarchical orders. Here, the authors show that working within such a structure is associated with a reduced sense of agency and outcome processing for junior cadets, but this relationship is absent in trained officers.}},
  articleno    = {{4366}},
  author       = {{Caspar, Emilie and Lo Bue, Salvatore and Magalhaes De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A. and Haggard, Patrick and Cleeremans, Axel}},
  issn         = {{2041-1723}},
  journal      = {{NATURE COMMUNICATIONS}},
  keywords     = {{SUPPLEMENTARY,EXPERIENCE,RESPONSES,IMPLICIT,MODEL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{10}},
  title        = {{The effect of military training on the sense of agency and outcome processing}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18152-x}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2020}},
}

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