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Macro-contextual determinants of cancer screening participation and inequalities : a multilevel analysis of 29 European countries

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Abstract
Background: Little attention has been devoted to the role of macro-level determinants in preventive health inequalities, particularly in cancer screening participation. Research has evidenced inequalities in cancer screening uptake yet has mainly focused on the screening programmes' moderating role at the macro-level. To address this gap, this study examines how welfare provision and healthcare system features modify cancer screening uptake and inequalities across European countries. Methods: Data from 99 715 (Pap smear) and 54 557 (mammography) women in 29 countries from the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) 2014 wave and Swiss Health Interview Survey (SHIS) 2012 wave was analysed. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models, including cross-level interactions, to examine whether social protection expenditure in particular policy areas and healthcare system characteristics explained cross-country differences in Pap smear and mammography uptake and inequalities. Results: Main findings revealed that GP gatekeeping systems were associated with reduced screening uptake likelihood in both Pap smear and mammography, and so were stronger primary care systems in Pap smear, while higher expenditures on old age and survivors were associated with increased mammography uptake. Cross-level interactions showed that in countries with higher expenditures on sickness/healthcare, disability, social exclusion and public health, and a higher number of GPs, educational inequalities in both Pap smear and mammography uptake were smaller, while higher out-of-pocket payments had the opposite effect of increasing inequalities. Conclusions: Overall, our results show that social protection policies and healthcare system features affect cancer screening participation. We conclude that institutional and policy arrangements interact with individuals' (educational) resources and, through the (re)distribution of valued goods and resources at the macro level, these arrangements may contribute to enhancing preventive healthcare use and mitigating screening uptake inequalities.
Keywords
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, Health Policy, Health(social science), Cancer screening participation, Macro-level determinants, Social protection expenditure, Healthcare system, Educational inequalities, Multilevel analysis, European countries, UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE, POPULATION HEALTH, WELFARE-STATE, SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES, CARE UTILIZATION, EXPENDITURE, EDUCATION, BREAST, INEQUITIES, BARRIERS

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Citation

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MLA
Jolidon, Vladimir, et al. “Macro-Contextual Determinants of Cancer Screening Participation and Inequalities : A Multilevel Analysis of 29 European Countries.” SSM-POPULATION HEALTH, vol. 15, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100830.
APA
Jolidon, V., Bracke, P., & Burton-Jeangros, C. (2021). Macro-contextual determinants of cancer screening participation and inequalities : a multilevel analysis of 29 European countries. SSM-POPULATION HEALTH, 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100830
Chicago author-date
Jolidon, Vladimir, Piet Bracke, and Claudine Burton-Jeangros. 2021. “Macro-Contextual Determinants of Cancer Screening Participation and Inequalities : A Multilevel Analysis of 29 European Countries.” SSM-POPULATION HEALTH 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100830.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Jolidon, Vladimir, Piet Bracke, and Claudine Burton-Jeangros. 2021. “Macro-Contextual Determinants of Cancer Screening Participation and Inequalities : A Multilevel Analysis of 29 European Countries.” SSM-POPULATION HEALTH 15. doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100830.
Vancouver
1.
Jolidon V, Bracke P, Burton-Jeangros C. Macro-contextual determinants of cancer screening participation and inequalities : a multilevel analysis of 29 European countries. SSM-POPULATION HEALTH. 2021;15.
IEEE
[1]
V. Jolidon, P. Bracke, and C. Burton-Jeangros, “Macro-contextual determinants of cancer screening participation and inequalities : a multilevel analysis of 29 European countries,” SSM-POPULATION HEALTH, vol. 15, 2021.
@article{8735825,
  abstract     = {{Background: Little attention has been devoted to the role of macro-level determinants in preventive health inequalities, particularly in cancer screening participation. Research has evidenced inequalities in cancer screening uptake yet has mainly focused on the screening programmes' moderating role at the macro-level. To address this gap, this study examines how welfare provision and healthcare system features modify cancer screening uptake and inequalities across European countries.

Methods: Data from 99 715 (Pap smear) and 54 557 (mammography) women in 29 countries from the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) 2014 wave and Swiss Health Interview Survey (SHIS) 2012 wave was analysed. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models, including cross-level interactions, to examine whether social protection expenditure in particular policy areas and healthcare system characteristics explained cross-country differences in Pap smear and mammography uptake and inequalities.

Results: Main findings revealed that GP gatekeeping systems were associated with reduced screening uptake likelihood in both Pap smear and mammography, and so were stronger primary care systems in Pap smear, while higher expenditures on old age and survivors were associated with increased mammography uptake. Cross-level interactions showed that in countries with higher expenditures on sickness/healthcare, disability, social exclusion and public health, and a higher number of GPs, educational inequalities in both Pap smear and mammography uptake were smaller, while higher out-of-pocket payments had the opposite effect of increasing inequalities.

Conclusions: Overall, our results show that social protection policies and healthcare system features affect cancer screening participation. We conclude that institutional and policy arrangements interact with individuals' (educational) resources and, through the (re)distribution of valued goods and resources at the macro level, these arrangements may contribute to enhancing preventive healthcare use and mitigating screening uptake inequalities.}},
  articleno    = {{100830}},
  author       = {{Jolidon, Vladimir and Bracke, Piet and Burton-Jeangros, Claudine}},
  issn         = {{2352-8273}},
  journal      = {{SSM-POPULATION HEALTH}},
  keywords     = {{Public Health,Environmental and Occupational Health,Health Policy,Health(social science),Cancer screening participation,Macro-level determinants,Social protection expenditure,Healthcare system,Educational inequalities,Multilevel analysis,European countries,UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE,POPULATION HEALTH,WELFARE-STATE,SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES,CARE UTILIZATION,EXPENDITURE,EDUCATION,BREAST,INEQUITIES,BARRIERS}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{Macro-contextual determinants of cancer screening participation and inequalities : a multilevel analysis of 29 European countries}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100830}},
  volume       = {{15}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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