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Observational evaluative conditioning is sensitive to relational information

Sarah Kasran (UGent) , Sean Joseph Hughes (UGent) and Jan De Houwer (UGent)
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Abstract
Social learning represents an important avenue via which evaluations can be formed or changed. Rather than learning slowly through trial and error, we can instead observe how another person (a "model") interacts with stimuli and quickly adjust our own behaviour. We report five studies (n = 912) that focused on one subtype of social learning, observational evaluative conditioning (OEC), and how it is moderated by relational information (i.e., information indicating how a stimulus and a model's reactions are related). Participants observed a model reacting positively to one stimulus and negatively to another, and were either told that these reactions were genuine, faked, or opposite to the model's actual feelings. Stimulus evaluations were then indexed using ratings and a personalised Implicit Association Test (pIAT). When the model's reactions were said to be genuine, OEC effects emerged in the expected direction. When the model's reactions were said to be faked, the magnitude of self-reported, but not pIAT, effects was reduced. Finally, stating that the model's reactions were opposite to his actual feelings eliminated or reversed self-reported effects and eliminated pIAT effects. We consider how these findings relate to previous work as well as mental-process theories.
Keywords
Social learning, observational conditioning, evaluations, relational information, IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST, ATTITUDES, MODELS, TRUSTWORTHINESS, TRANSMISSION, COOCCURRENCE, AWARENESS, COGNITION, EXPOSURE, VALENCE

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Citation

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MLA
Kasran, Sarah, et al. “Observational Evaluative Conditioning Is Sensitive to Relational Information.” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2022, doi:10.1177/17470218221080471.
APA
Kasran, S., Hughes, S. J., & De Houwer, J. (2022). Observational evaluative conditioning is sensitive to relational information. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1177/17470218221080471
Chicago author-date
Kasran, Sarah, Sean Joseph Hughes, and Jan De Houwer. 2022. “Observational Evaluative Conditioning Is Sensitive to Relational Information.” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. https://doi.org/10.1177/17470218221080471.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kasran, Sarah, Sean Joseph Hughes, and Jan De Houwer. 2022. “Observational Evaluative Conditioning Is Sensitive to Relational Information.” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. doi:10.1177/17470218221080471.
Vancouver
1.
Kasran S, Hughes SJ, De Houwer J. Observational evaluative conditioning is sensitive to relational information. QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 2022;
IEEE
[1]
S. Kasran, S. J. Hughes, and J. De Houwer, “Observational evaluative conditioning is sensitive to relational information,” QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2022.
@article{8734742,
  abstract     = {{Social learning represents an important avenue via which evaluations can be formed or changed. Rather than learning slowly through trial and error, we can instead observe how another person (a "model") interacts with stimuli and quickly adjust our own behaviour. We report five studies (n = 912) that focused on one subtype of social learning, observational evaluative conditioning (OEC), and how it is moderated by relational information (i.e., information indicating how a stimulus and a model's reactions are related). Participants observed a model reacting positively to one stimulus and negatively to another, and were either told that these reactions were genuine, faked, or opposite to the model's actual feelings. Stimulus evaluations were then indexed using ratings and a personalised Implicit Association Test (pIAT). When the model's reactions were said to be genuine, OEC effects emerged in the expected direction. When the model's reactions were said to be faked, the magnitude of self-reported, but not pIAT, effects was reduced. Finally, stating that the model's reactions were opposite to his actual feelings eliminated or reversed self-reported effects and eliminated pIAT effects. We consider how these findings relate to previous work as well as mental-process theories.}},
  author       = {{Kasran, Sarah and Hughes, Sean Joseph and De Houwer, Jan}},
  issn         = {{1747-0218}},
  journal      = {{QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Social learning,observational conditioning,evaluations,relational information,IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST,ATTITUDES,MODELS,TRUSTWORTHINESS,TRANSMISSION,COOCCURRENCE,AWARENESS,COGNITION,EXPOSURE,VALENCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  title        = {{Observational evaluative conditioning is sensitive to relational information}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17470218221080471}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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