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Continuous fiber-reinforced aramid/PETG 3D-printed composites with high fiber loading through fused filament fabrication

Sander Rijckaert (UGent) , Lode Daelemans (UGent) , Ludwig Cardon (UGent) , Matthieu Boone (UGent) , Wim Van Paepegem (UGent) and Karen De Clerck (UGent)
(2022) POLYMERS. 14(2).
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Abstract
Recent development in the field of additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has allowed for the incorporation of continuous fiber reinforcement into 3D-printed polymer parts. These fiber reinforcements allow for the improvement of the mechanical properties, but compared to traditionally produced composite materials, the fiber volume fraction often remains low. This study aims to evaluate the in-nozzle impregnation of continuous aramid fiber reinforcement with glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) using a modified, low-cost, tabletop 3D printer. We analyze how dimensional printing parameters such as layer height and line width affect the fiber volume fraction and fiber dispersion in printed composites. By varying these parameters, unidirectional specimens are printed that have an inner structure going from an array-like to a continuous layered-like structure with fiber loading between 20 and 45 vol%. The inner structure was analyzed by optical microscopy and Computed Tomography (µCT), achieving new insights into the structural composition of printed composites. The printed composites show good fiber alignment and the tensile modulus in the fiber direction increased from 2.2 GPa (non-reinforced) to 33 GPa (45 vol%), while the flexural modulus in the fiber direction increased from 1.6 GPa (non-reinforced) to 27 GPa (45 vol%). The continuous 3D reinforced specimens have quality and properties in the range of traditional composite materials produced by hand lay-up techniques, far exceeding the performance of typical bulk 3D-printed polymers. Hence, this technique has potential for the low-cost additive manufacturing of small, intricate parts with substantial mechanical performance, or parts of which only a small number is needed.
Keywords
Polymers and Plastics, General Chemistry, additive manufacturing, FFF, FDM, mechanical testing, microscopy, low-cost, CONTINUOUS CARBON-FIBER, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, PLY THICKNESS, SURFACE-TREATMENT, ACID COMPOSITES, STRENGTH, TENSILE, GLASS, IMPREGNATION, PERFORMANCE

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Rijckaert, Sander, et al. “Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Aramid/PETG 3D-Printed Composites with High Fiber Loading through Fused Filament Fabrication.” POLYMERS, vol. 14, no. 2, 2022, doi:10.3390/polym14020298.
APA
Rijckaert, S., Daelemans, L., Cardon, L., Boone, M., Van Paepegem, W., & De Clerck, K. (2022). Continuous fiber-reinforced aramid/PETG 3D-printed composites with high fiber loading through fused filament fabrication. POLYMERS, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14020298
Chicago author-date
Rijckaert, Sander, Lode Daelemans, Ludwig Cardon, Matthieu Boone, Wim Van Paepegem, and Karen De Clerck. 2022. “Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Aramid/PETG 3D-Printed Composites with High Fiber Loading through Fused Filament Fabrication.” POLYMERS 14 (2). https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14020298.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rijckaert, Sander, Lode Daelemans, Ludwig Cardon, Matthieu Boone, Wim Van Paepegem, and Karen De Clerck. 2022. “Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Aramid/PETG 3D-Printed Composites with High Fiber Loading through Fused Filament Fabrication.” POLYMERS 14 (2). doi:10.3390/polym14020298.
Vancouver
1.
Rijckaert S, Daelemans L, Cardon L, Boone M, Van Paepegem W, De Clerck K. Continuous fiber-reinforced aramid/PETG 3D-printed composites with high fiber loading through fused filament fabrication. POLYMERS. 2022;14(2).
IEEE
[1]
S. Rijckaert, L. Daelemans, L. Cardon, M. Boone, W. Van Paepegem, and K. De Clerck, “Continuous fiber-reinforced aramid/PETG 3D-printed composites with high fiber loading through fused filament fabrication,” POLYMERS, vol. 14, no. 2, 2022.
@article{8733959,
  abstract     = {{Recent development in the field of additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has allowed for the incorporation of continuous fiber reinforcement into 3D-printed polymer parts. These fiber reinforcements allow for the improvement of the mechanical properties, but compared to traditionally produced composite materials, the fiber volume fraction often remains low. This study aims to evaluate the in-nozzle impregnation of continuous aramid fiber reinforcement with glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) using a modified, low-cost, tabletop 3D printer. We analyze how dimensional printing parameters such as layer height and line width affect the fiber volume fraction and fiber dispersion in printed composites. By varying these parameters, unidirectional specimens are printed that have an inner structure going from an array-like to a continuous layered-like structure with fiber loading between 20 and 45 vol%. The inner structure was analyzed by optical microscopy and Computed Tomography (µCT), achieving new insights into the structural composition of printed composites. The printed composites show good fiber alignment and the tensile modulus in the fiber direction increased from 2.2 GPa (non-reinforced) to 33 GPa (45 vol%), while the flexural modulus in the fiber direction increased from 1.6 GPa (non-reinforced) to 27 GPa (45 vol%). The continuous 3D reinforced specimens have quality and properties in the range of traditional composite materials produced by hand lay-up techniques, far exceeding the performance of typical bulk 3D-printed polymers. Hence, this technique has potential for the low-cost additive manufacturing of small, intricate parts with substantial mechanical performance, or parts of which only a small number is needed.}},
  articleno    = {{298}},
  author       = {{Rijckaert, Sander and Daelemans, Lode and Cardon, Ludwig and Boone, Matthieu and Van Paepegem, Wim and De Clerck, Karen}},
  issn         = {{2073-4360}},
  journal      = {{POLYMERS}},
  keywords     = {{Polymers and Plastics,General Chemistry,additive manufacturing,FFF,FDM,mechanical testing,microscopy,low-cost,CONTINUOUS CARBON-FIBER,MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES,PLY THICKNESS,SURFACE-TREATMENT,ACID COMPOSITES,STRENGTH,TENSILE,GLASS,IMPREGNATION,PERFORMANCE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{16}},
  title        = {{Continuous fiber-reinforced aramid/PETG 3D-printed composites with high fiber loading through fused filament fabrication}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14020298}},
  volume       = {{14}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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