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The absence of the caffeine synthase gene is involved in the naturally decaffeinated status of Coffea humblotiana, a wild species from Comoro archipelago

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Abstract
Caffeine is the most consumed alkaloid stimulant in the world. It is synthesized through the activity of three known N-methyltransferase proteins. Here we are reporting on the 422-Mb chromosome-level assembly of the Coffea humblotiana genome, a wild and endangered, naturally caffeine-free, species from the Comoro archipelago. We predicted 32,874 genes and anchored 88.7% of the sequence onto the 11 chromosomes. Comparative analyses with the African Robusta coffee genome (C. canephora) revealed an extensive genome conservation, despite an estimated 11 million years of divergence and a broad diversity of genome sizes within the Coffea genus. In this genome, the absence of caffeine is likely due to the absence of the caffeine synthase gene which converts theobromine into caffeine through an illegitimate recombination mechanism. These findings pave the way for further characterization of caffeine-free species in the Coffea genus and will guide research towards naturally-decaffeinated coffee drinks for consumers.
Keywords
Multidisciplinary, SIZE VARIATION, GENOME, ALIGNMENT, SEQUENCE, EVOLUTION, CANEPHORA, PROGRAM, BIOSYNTHESIS, METABOLISM, EXPRESSION

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MLA
Raharimalala, Nathalie, et al. “The Absence of the Caffeine Synthase Gene Is Involved in the Naturally Decaffeinated Status of Coffea Humblotiana, a Wild Species from Comoro Archipelago.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 11, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-87419-0.
APA
Raharimalala, N., Rombauts, S., McCarthy, A., Garavito, A., Orozco-Arias, S., Bellanger, L., … Crouzillat, D. (2021). The absence of the caffeine synthase gene is involved in the naturally decaffeinated status of Coffea humblotiana, a wild species from Comoro archipelago. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87419-0
Chicago author-date
Raharimalala, Nathalie, Stephane Rombauts, Andrew McCarthy, Andréa Garavito, Simon Orozco-Arias, Laurence Bellanger, Alexa Yadira Morales-Correa, et al. 2021. “The Absence of the Caffeine Synthase Gene Is Involved in the Naturally Decaffeinated Status of Coffea Humblotiana, a Wild Species from Comoro Archipelago.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87419-0.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Raharimalala, Nathalie, Stephane Rombauts, Andrew McCarthy, Andréa Garavito, Simon Orozco-Arias, Laurence Bellanger, Alexa Yadira Morales-Correa, Solène Froger, Stéphane Michaux, Victoria Berry, Sylviane Metairon, Coralie Fournier, Maud Lepelley, Lukas Mueller, Emmanuel Couturon, Perla Hamon, Jean-Jacques Rakotomalala, Patrick Descombes, Romain Guyot, and Dominique Crouzillat. 2021. “The Absence of the Caffeine Synthase Gene Is Involved in the Naturally Decaffeinated Status of Coffea Humblotiana, a Wild Species from Comoro Archipelago.” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 11 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-021-87419-0.
Vancouver
1.
Raharimalala N, Rombauts S, McCarthy A, Garavito A, Orozco-Arias S, Bellanger L, et al. The absence of the caffeine synthase gene is involved in the naturally decaffeinated status of Coffea humblotiana, a wild species from Comoro archipelago. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 2021;11(1).
IEEE
[1]
N. Raharimalala et al., “The absence of the caffeine synthase gene is involved in the naturally decaffeinated status of Coffea humblotiana, a wild species from Comoro archipelago,” SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 11, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8733950,
  abstract     = {{Caffeine is the most consumed alkaloid stimulant in the world. It is synthesized through the activity of three known N-methyltransferase proteins. Here we are reporting on the 422-Mb chromosome-level assembly of the Coffea humblotiana genome, a wild and endangered, naturally caffeine-free, species from the Comoro archipelago. We predicted 32,874 genes and anchored 88.7% of the sequence onto the 11 chromosomes. Comparative analyses with the African Robusta coffee genome (C. canephora) revealed an extensive genome conservation, despite an estimated 11 million years of divergence and a broad diversity of genome sizes within the Coffea genus. In this genome, the absence of caffeine is likely due to the absence of the caffeine synthase gene which converts theobromine into caffeine through an illegitimate recombination mechanism. These findings pave the way for further characterization of caffeine-free species in the Coffea genus and will guide research towards naturally-decaffeinated coffee drinks for consumers.}},
  articleno    = {{8119}},
  author       = {{Raharimalala, Nathalie and Rombauts, Stephane and McCarthy, Andrew and Garavito, Andréa and Orozco-Arias, Simon and Bellanger, Laurence and Morales-Correa, Alexa Yadira and Froger, Solène and Michaux, Stéphane and Berry, Victoria and Metairon, Sylviane and Fournier, Coralie and Lepelley, Maud and Mueller, Lukas and Couturon, Emmanuel and Hamon, Perla and Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques and Descombes, Patrick and Guyot, Romain and Crouzillat, Dominique}},
  issn         = {{2045-2322}},
  journal      = {{SCIENTIFIC REPORTS}},
  keywords     = {{Multidisciplinary,SIZE VARIATION,GENOME,ALIGNMENT,SEQUENCE,EVOLUTION,CANEPHORA,PROGRAM,BIOSYNTHESIS,METABOLISM,EXPRESSION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{14}},
  title        = {{The absence of the caffeine synthase gene is involved in the naturally decaffeinated status of Coffea humblotiana, a wild species from Comoro archipelago}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87419-0}},
  volume       = {{11}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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