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Simultaneous GPS-tracking of parents reveals a similar parental investment within pairs, but no immediate co-adjustment on a trip-to-trip basis

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Abstract
Background Parental care benefits the offspring, but comes at a cost for each parent, which in biparental species gives rise to a conflict between partners regarding the within-pair distribution of care. Pair members could avoid exploitation by efficiently keeping track of each other's efforts and coordinating their efforts. Parents may, therefore, space their presence at the nest, which could also allow for permanent protection of the offspring. Additionally, they may respond to their partner's previous investment by co-adjusting their efforts on a trip-to-trip basis, resulting in overall similar parental activities within pairs. Methods We investigated the coordination of parental care measured as nest attendance and foraging effort in the Lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), a species with long nest bouts that performs extended foraging trips out of sight of their partner. This was achieved by GPS-tracking both pair members simultaneously during the entire chick rearing period. Results We found that the timing of foraging trips (and hence nest attendance) was coordinated within gull pairs, as individuals left the colony only after their partner had returned. Parents did not match their partner's investment by actively co-adjusting their foraging efforts on a trip-by-trip basis. Yet, pair members were similar in their temporal and energetic investments during chick rearing. Conclusion Balanced investment levels over a longer time frame suggest that a coordination of effort may not require permanent co-adjustment of the levels of care on a trip-to-trip basis, but may instead rather take place at an earlier stage in the reproductive attempt, or over integrated longer time intervals. Identifying the drivers and underlying processes of coordination will be one of the next necessary steps to fully understand parental cooperation in long-lived species.
Keywords
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Parental investment, Sexual conflict, Parental coordination, Biologging, Seabirds, Lesser black-backed gulls, BLACK-BACKED GULLS, MANX SHEARWATERS, SEXUAL CONFLICT, HARNESS ATTACHMENT, FORAGING BEHAVIOR, RISSA-TRIDACTYLA, COORDINATION, CHICK, FOOD, CARE

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MLA
Kavelaars, Marwa, et al. “Simultaneous GPS-Tracking of Parents Reveals a Similar Parental Investment within Pairs, but No Immediate Co-Adjustment on a Trip-to-Trip Basis.” MOVEMENT ECOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.1186/s40462-021-00279-1.
APA
Kavelaars, M., Baert, J., Van Malderen, J., Stienen, E. W. M., Shamoun-Baranes, J., Lens, L., & Müller, W. (2021). Simultaneous GPS-tracking of parents reveals a similar parental investment within pairs, but no immediate co-adjustment on a trip-to-trip basis. MOVEMENT ECOLOGY, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40462-021-00279-1
Chicago author-date
Kavelaars, Marwa, Jan Baert, Jolien Van Malderen, Eric W. M. Stienen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Luc Lens, and Wendt Müller. 2021. “Simultaneous GPS-Tracking of Parents Reveals a Similar Parental Investment within Pairs, but No Immediate Co-Adjustment on a Trip-to-Trip Basis.” MOVEMENT ECOLOGY 9 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40462-021-00279-1.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kavelaars, Marwa, Jan Baert, Jolien Van Malderen, Eric W. M. Stienen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Luc Lens, and Wendt Müller. 2021. “Simultaneous GPS-Tracking of Parents Reveals a Similar Parental Investment within Pairs, but No Immediate Co-Adjustment on a Trip-to-Trip Basis.” MOVEMENT ECOLOGY 9 (1). doi:10.1186/s40462-021-00279-1.
Vancouver
1.
Kavelaars M, Baert J, Van Malderen J, Stienen EWM, Shamoun-Baranes J, Lens L, et al. Simultaneous GPS-tracking of parents reveals a similar parental investment within pairs, but no immediate co-adjustment on a trip-to-trip basis. MOVEMENT ECOLOGY. 2021;9(1).
IEEE
[1]
M. Kavelaars et al., “Simultaneous GPS-tracking of parents reveals a similar parental investment within pairs, but no immediate co-adjustment on a trip-to-trip basis,” MOVEMENT ECOLOGY, vol. 9, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8733372,
  abstract     = {{Background Parental care benefits the offspring, but comes at a cost for each parent, which in biparental species gives rise to a conflict between partners regarding the within-pair distribution of care. Pair members could avoid exploitation by efficiently keeping track of each other's efforts and coordinating their efforts. Parents may, therefore, space their presence at the nest, which could also allow for permanent protection of the offspring. Additionally, they may respond to their partner's previous investment by co-adjusting their efforts on a trip-to-trip basis, resulting in overall similar parental activities within pairs. Methods We investigated the coordination of parental care measured as nest attendance and foraging effort in the Lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), a species with long nest bouts that performs extended foraging trips out of sight of their partner. This was achieved by GPS-tracking both pair members simultaneously during the entire chick rearing period. Results We found that the timing of foraging trips (and hence nest attendance) was coordinated within gull pairs, as individuals left the colony only after their partner had returned. Parents did not match their partner's investment by actively co-adjusting their foraging efforts on a trip-by-trip basis. Yet, pair members were similar in their temporal and energetic investments during chick rearing. Conclusion Balanced investment levels over a longer time frame suggest that a coordination of effort may not require permanent co-adjustment of the levels of care on a trip-to-trip basis, but may instead rather take place at an earlier stage in the reproductive attempt, or over integrated longer time intervals. Identifying the drivers and underlying processes of coordination will be one of the next necessary steps to fully understand parental cooperation in long-lived species.}},
  articleno    = {{42}},
  author       = {{Kavelaars, Marwa and Baert, Jan and Van Malderen, Jolien and Stienen, Eric W. M. and Shamoun-Baranes, Judy and Lens, Luc and Müller, Wendt}},
  issn         = {{2051-3933}},
  journal      = {{MOVEMENT ECOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{Ecology,Evolution,Behavior and Systematics,Parental investment,Sexual conflict,Parental coordination,Biologging,Seabirds,Lesser black-backed gulls,BLACK-BACKED GULLS,MANX SHEARWATERS,SEXUAL CONFLICT,HARNESS ATTACHMENT,FORAGING BEHAVIOR,RISSA-TRIDACTYLA,COORDINATION,CHICK,FOOD,CARE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{13}},
  title        = {{Simultaneous GPS-tracking of parents reveals a similar parental investment within pairs, but no immediate co-adjustment on a trip-to-trip basis}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40462-021-00279-1}},
  volume       = {{9}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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