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In vitro stability and ex vivo absorption of thymol monoglucosides in the porcine gut

(2022) ANIMAL. 16(1).
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Abstract
Thymol alpha-D-glucopyranoside (T alpha G) and thymol beta-D-glucopyranoside (T beta G) are believed to have different kinetic behaviours in the porcine gut than its parent aglycon thymol. However, recently, it was shown that concentrations of both glucosides decreased rapidly in the stomach and proximal small intestine following oral supplementation to piglets as did thymol. Yet, the stability of thymol glucosides in gut contents and their absorption route remains obscure. Therefore, a series of in vitro incubations were performed, simulating the impact of pH, digestive enzymes, bacterial activity and mucosal extracts on stability of these glucosides. Their absorption mechanisms were investigated using the Ussing chamber model in the presence or the absence of inhibitors of sodium-dependent glucose linked transporter 1 and lactase phlorizin hydrolase. Both glucosides remained intact at physiological pH levels in the presence of digestive enzymes. Recoveries from T alpha G and T beta G were below 90% when incubated with small intestinal homogenates from the distal jejunum or from all sampled sites, respectively. However, no aglycon could be detected in these samples. Bacterial inoculum of the small intestine, on the other hand, hydrolysed T beta G quickly with up to 44% of free aglycon appearing. T alpha G proved more resistant to porcine gastrointestinal bacterial glucosidases with only trace amounts (<1%) of free thymol at the end of the incubations. Electrophysiological measurements in Ussing chambers did not suggest active transport of the glucosides. Mucosal T alpha G and T beta G concentrations were unchanged between start and end of the absorption measurements. Additionally, no T alpha G and only a very limited amount of T beta G were retrieved from the serosal side. Tissue associated concentrations, although marginal (<1% of luminal concentration), were mainly as intact glucoside or as aglycon for T alpha G and T beta G, respectively. Addition of both inhibitors significantly increased the amount of intact glucosides retrieved from the mucosal tissues as compared to controls. In conclusion, bacterial hydrolysis was identified as the most important source of T beta G loss, whereas T alpha G seemed less prone to degradation or absorption in these in vitro and ex vivo models. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium.
Keywords
Absorption, Piglet, Sodium-dependent glucose linked co-transporter 1, Thymol alpha-D-glucopyranoside, Thymol beta-D-glucopyranoside, LACTASE-PHLORHIZIN HYDROLASE, BRUSH-BORDER-MEMBRANE, QUERCETIN GLUCOSIDES, SMALL-INTESTINE, GASTROINTESTINAL-TRACT, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, METABOLISM, QUERCETIN-3-GLUCOSIDE, CINNAMALDEHYDE, DEGRADATION

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MLA
Van Noten, Noémie, et al. “In Vitro Stability and Ex Vivo Absorption of Thymol Monoglucosides in the Porcine Gut.” ANIMAL, vol. 16, no. 1, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.animal.2021.100417.
APA
Van Noten, N., Van Liefferinge, E., Degroote, J., De Smet, S., Desmet, T., & Michiels, J. (2022). In vitro stability and ex vivo absorption of thymol monoglucosides in the porcine gut. ANIMAL, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100417
Chicago author-date
Van Noten, Noémie, Elout Van Liefferinge, Jeroen Degroote, Stefaan De Smet, Tom Desmet, and Joris Michiels. 2022. “In Vitro Stability and Ex Vivo Absorption of Thymol Monoglucosides in the Porcine Gut.” ANIMAL 16 (1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100417.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Noten, Noémie, Elout Van Liefferinge, Jeroen Degroote, Stefaan De Smet, Tom Desmet, and Joris Michiels. 2022. “In Vitro Stability and Ex Vivo Absorption of Thymol Monoglucosides in the Porcine Gut.” ANIMAL 16 (1). doi:10.1016/j.animal.2021.100417.
Vancouver
1.
Van Noten N, Van Liefferinge E, Degroote J, De Smet S, Desmet T, Michiels J. In vitro stability and ex vivo absorption of thymol monoglucosides in the porcine gut. ANIMAL. 2022;16(1).
IEEE
[1]
N. Van Noten, E. Van Liefferinge, J. Degroote, S. De Smet, T. Desmet, and J. Michiels, “In vitro stability and ex vivo absorption of thymol monoglucosides in the porcine gut,” ANIMAL, vol. 16, no. 1, 2022.
@article{8731945,
  abstract     = {{Thymol alpha-D-glucopyranoside (T alpha G) and thymol beta-D-glucopyranoside (T beta G) are believed to have different kinetic behaviours in the porcine gut than its parent aglycon thymol. However, recently, it was shown that concentrations of both glucosides decreased rapidly in the stomach and proximal small intestine following oral supplementation to piglets as did thymol. Yet, the stability of thymol glucosides in gut contents and their absorption route remains obscure. Therefore, a series of in vitro incubations were performed, simulating the impact of pH, digestive enzymes, bacterial activity and mucosal extracts on stability of these glucosides. Their absorption mechanisms were investigated using the Ussing chamber model in the presence or the absence of inhibitors of sodium-dependent glucose linked transporter 1 and lactase phlorizin hydrolase. Both glucosides remained intact at physiological pH levels in the presence of digestive enzymes. Recoveries from T alpha G and T beta G were below 90% when incubated with small intestinal homogenates from the distal jejunum or from all sampled sites, respectively. However, no aglycon could be detected in these samples. Bacterial inoculum of the small intestine, on the other hand, hydrolysed T beta G quickly with up to 44% of free aglycon appearing. T alpha G proved more resistant to porcine gastrointestinal bacterial glucosidases with only trace amounts (<1%) of free thymol at the end of the incubations. Electrophysiological measurements in Ussing chambers did not suggest active transport of the glucosides. Mucosal T alpha G and T beta G concentrations were unchanged between start and end of the absorption measurements. Additionally, no T alpha G and only a very limited amount of T beta G were retrieved from the serosal side. Tissue associated concentrations, although marginal (<1% of luminal concentration), were mainly as intact glucoside or as aglycon for T alpha G and T beta G, respectively. Addition of both inhibitors significantly increased the amount of intact glucosides retrieved from the mucosal tissues as compared to controls. In conclusion, bacterial hydrolysis was identified as the most important source of T beta G loss, whereas T alpha G seemed less prone to degradation or absorption in these in vitro and ex vivo models. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium.}},
  articleno    = {{100417}},
  author       = {{Van Noten, Noémie and Van Liefferinge, Elout and Degroote, Jeroen and De Smet, Stefaan and Desmet, Tom and Michiels, Joris}},
  issn         = {{1751-7311}},
  journal      = {{ANIMAL}},
  keywords     = {{Absorption,Piglet,Sodium-dependent glucose linked co-transporter 1,Thymol alpha-D-glucopyranoside,Thymol beta-D-glucopyranoside,LACTASE-PHLORHIZIN HYDROLASE,BRUSH-BORDER-MEMBRANE,QUERCETIN GLUCOSIDES,SMALL-INTESTINE,GASTROINTESTINAL-TRACT,ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY,METABOLISM,QUERCETIN-3-GLUCOSIDE,CINNAMALDEHYDE,DEGRADATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{In vitro stability and ex vivo absorption of thymol monoglucosides in the porcine gut}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100417}},
  volume       = {{16}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}

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