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A low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 28-GHz beamforming transmitters in 22-nm FD-SOI CMOS

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Abstract
Active load impedance variations in a phased array transmitter cause significant power amplifier (PA) performance degradation, in terms of output power, linearity, and power-added efficiency, which are key parameters to enable high-speed data throughputs using spectrally efficient modulation schemes. The system performance can be restored by using PAs having active or passive reconfigurability with the help of antenna impedance sensors. This article presents a low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 5G millimeter-wave phased-array applications. The complex load impedance of the PA is determined based on the complex voltage over a sensing element, which can be integrated and co-designed with the PA output matching network, with minimal loss (<0.2 dB) and a negligible area penalty. A full-range phase detector with improved detection resolution is proposed, enabling an amplitude-insensitive phase detection. Fabricated in a 22 nm FD-SOI process, the sensor prototype occupies a silicon area of 0.024 mm(2) and consumes 13.2 mW power. The sensor demonstrates a wide detection range with vertical bar Gamma vertical bar up to 0.7 (VSWR 5.67) in a load-pull test at 28 GHz. From Gamma circle of 0.2 up to 0.7, the maximum detection errors in the magnitude and phase of the Gamma are 0.14 degrees and 40 degrees, respectively.
Keywords
AMPLIFIER, EFFICIENCY, CMOS, complex voltage, impedance sensor, phase detector, phased array, power amplifier (PA), voltage-standing-wave-ratio (VSWR)

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Citation

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MLA
Zhang, Yang, et al. “A Low-Power Reflection-Coefficient Sensor for 28-GHz Beamforming Transmitters in 22-Nm FD-SOI CMOS.” IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, vol. 56, no. 12, 2021, pp. 3704–14, doi:10.1109/JSSC.2021.3106700.
APA
Zhang, Y., Mangraviti, G., Nguyen, J., Zong, Z., Kapusuz, K. Y., Lemey, S., … Wambacq, P. (2021). A low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 28-GHz beamforming transmitters in 22-nm FD-SOI CMOS. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, 56(12), 3704–3714. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2021.3106700
Chicago author-date
Zhang, Yang, Giovanni Mangraviti, Johan Nguyen, Zhiwei Zong, Kamil Yavuz Kapusuz, Sam Lemey, Hendrik Rogier, Giuseppe Gramegna, and Piet Wambacq. 2021. “A Low-Power Reflection-Coefficient Sensor for 28-GHz Beamforming Transmitters in 22-Nm FD-SOI CMOS.” IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS 56 (12): 3704–14. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2021.3106700.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zhang, Yang, Giovanni Mangraviti, Johan Nguyen, Zhiwei Zong, Kamil Yavuz Kapusuz, Sam Lemey, Hendrik Rogier, Giuseppe Gramegna, and Piet Wambacq. 2021. “A Low-Power Reflection-Coefficient Sensor for 28-GHz Beamforming Transmitters in 22-Nm FD-SOI CMOS.” IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS 56 (12): 3704–3714. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2021.3106700.
Vancouver
1.
Zhang Y, Mangraviti G, Nguyen J, Zong Z, Kapusuz KY, Lemey S, et al. A low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 28-GHz beamforming transmitters in 22-nm FD-SOI CMOS. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS. 2021;56(12):3704–14.
IEEE
[1]
Y. Zhang et al., “A low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 28-GHz beamforming transmitters in 22-nm FD-SOI CMOS,” IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3704–3714, 2021.
@article{8730918,
  abstract     = {{Active load impedance variations in a phased array transmitter cause significant power amplifier (PA) performance degradation, in terms of output power, linearity, and power-added efficiency, which are key parameters to enable high-speed data throughputs using spectrally efficient modulation schemes. The system performance can be restored by using PAs having active or passive reconfigurability with the help of antenna impedance sensors. This article presents a low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 5G millimeter-wave phased-array applications. The complex load impedance of the PA is determined based on the complex voltage over a sensing element, which can be integrated and co-designed with the PA output matching network, with minimal loss (<0.2 dB) and a negligible area penalty. A full-range phase detector with improved detection resolution is proposed, enabling an amplitude-insensitive phase detection. Fabricated in a 22 nm FD-SOI process, the sensor prototype occupies a silicon area of 0.024 mm(2) and consumes 13.2 mW power. The sensor demonstrates a wide detection range with vertical bar Gamma vertical bar up to 0.7 (VSWR 5.67) in a load-pull test at 28 GHz. From Gamma circle of 0.2 up to 0.7, the maximum detection errors in the magnitude and phase of the Gamma are 0.14 degrees and 40 degrees, respectively.}},
  author       = {{Zhang, Yang and Mangraviti, Giovanni and Nguyen, Johan and Zong, Zhiwei and Kapusuz, Kamil Yavuz and Lemey, Sam and Rogier, Hendrik and Gramegna, Giuseppe and Wambacq, Piet}},
  issn         = {{0018-9200}},
  journal      = {{IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS}},
  keywords     = {{AMPLIFIER,EFFICIENCY,CMOS,complex voltage,impedance sensor,phase detector,phased array,power amplifier (PA),voltage-standing-wave-ratio (VSWR)}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{3704--3714}},
  title        = {{A low-power reflection-coefficient sensor for 28-GHz beamforming transmitters in 22-nm FD-SOI CMOS}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2021.3106700}},
  volume       = {{56}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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