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Digital twins for wind energy conversion systems : a literature review of potential modelling techniques focused on model fidelity and computational load

(2021) PROCESSES. 9(12).
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Abstract
The Industry 4.0 concept of a Digital Twin will bring many advantages for wind energy conversion systems, e.g., in condition monitoring, predictive maintenance and the optimisation of control or design parameters. A virtual replica is at the heart of a digital twin. To construct a virtual replica, appropriate modelling techniques must be selected for the turbine components. These models must be chosen with the intended use case of the digital twin in mind, finding a proper balance between the model fidelity and computational load. This review article presents an overview of the recent literature on modelling techniques for turbine aerodynamics, structure and drivetrain mechanics, the permanent magnet synchronous generator, the power electronic converter and the pitch and yaw systems. For each component, a balanced overview is given of models with varying model fidelity and computational load, ranging from simplified lumped parameter models to advanced numerical Finite Element Method (FEM)-based models. The results of the literature review are presented graphically to aid the reader in the model selection process. Based on this review, a high-level structure of a digital twin is proposed together with a virtual replica with a minimum computational load. The concept of a multi-level hierarchical virtual replica is presented.
Keywords
digital twins, wind energy, wind turbines, Industry 4.0, direct-drive, permanent magnet synchronous generator, BEARING FAULT-DIAGNOSIS, DYNAMIC-BEHAVIOR, PITCH SYSTEM, PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS, TURBINE PERFORMANCE, ANOMALY DETECTION, CONTROL SCHEME, TOWER SHADOW, POWER, SPEED

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MLA
De Kooning, Jeroen, et al. “Digital Twins for Wind Energy Conversion Systems : A Literature Review of Potential Modelling Techniques Focused on Model Fidelity and Computational Load.” PROCESSES, vol. 9, no. 12, 2021, doi:10.3390/pr9122224.
APA
De Kooning, J., Stockman, K., De Maeyer, J., Jarquin-Laguna, A., & Vandevelde, L. (2021). Digital twins for wind energy conversion systems : a literature review of potential modelling techniques focused on model fidelity and computational load. PROCESSES, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122224
Chicago author-date
De Kooning, Jeroen, Kurt Stockman, Jeroen De Maeyer, Antonio Jarquin-Laguna, and Lieven Vandevelde. 2021. “Digital Twins for Wind Energy Conversion Systems : A Literature Review of Potential Modelling Techniques Focused on Model Fidelity and Computational Load.” PROCESSES 9 (12). https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122224.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Kooning, Jeroen, Kurt Stockman, Jeroen De Maeyer, Antonio Jarquin-Laguna, and Lieven Vandevelde. 2021. “Digital Twins for Wind Energy Conversion Systems : A Literature Review of Potential Modelling Techniques Focused on Model Fidelity and Computational Load.” PROCESSES 9 (12). doi:10.3390/pr9122224.
Vancouver
1.
De Kooning J, Stockman K, De Maeyer J, Jarquin-Laguna A, Vandevelde L. Digital twins for wind energy conversion systems : a literature review of potential modelling techniques focused on model fidelity and computational load. PROCESSES. 2021;9(12).
IEEE
[1]
J. De Kooning, K. Stockman, J. De Maeyer, A. Jarquin-Laguna, and L. Vandevelde, “Digital twins for wind energy conversion systems : a literature review of potential modelling techniques focused on model fidelity and computational load,” PROCESSES, vol. 9, no. 12, 2021.
@article{8729668,
  abstract     = {{The Industry 4.0 concept of a Digital Twin will bring many advantages for wind energy conversion systems, e.g., in condition monitoring, predictive maintenance and the optimisation of control or design parameters. A virtual replica is at the heart of a digital twin. To construct a virtual replica, appropriate modelling techniques must be selected for the turbine components. These models must be chosen with the intended use case of the digital twin in mind, finding a proper balance between the model fidelity and computational load. This review article presents an overview of the recent literature on modelling techniques for turbine aerodynamics, structure and drivetrain mechanics, the permanent magnet synchronous generator, the power electronic converter and the pitch and yaw systems. For each component, a balanced overview is given of models with varying model fidelity and computational load, ranging from simplified lumped parameter models to advanced numerical Finite Element Method (FEM)-based models. The results of the literature review are presented graphically to aid the reader in the model selection process. Based on this review, a high-level structure of a digital twin is proposed together with a virtual replica with a minimum computational load. The concept of a multi-level hierarchical virtual replica is presented.}},
  articleno    = {{2224}},
  author       = {{De Kooning, Jeroen and Stockman, Kurt and De Maeyer, Jeroen and Jarquin-Laguna, Antonio and Vandevelde, Lieven}},
  issn         = {{2227-9717}},
  journal      = {{PROCESSES}},
  keywords     = {{digital twins,wind energy,wind turbines,Industry 4.0,direct-drive,permanent magnet synchronous generator,BEARING FAULT-DIAGNOSIS,DYNAMIC-BEHAVIOR,PITCH SYSTEM,PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS,TURBINE PERFORMANCE,ANOMALY DETECTION,CONTROL SCHEME,TOWER SHADOW,POWER,SPEED}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{27}},
  title        = {{Digital twins for wind energy conversion systems : a literature review of potential modelling techniques focused on model fidelity and computational load}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122224}},
  volume       = {{9}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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