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Abstract
White maize in South Africa is the only staple crop produced on a widespread commercial basis for direct human consumption using genetically modified (GM) cultivars. Using a combined economic and environmental approach, we estimate the total welfare benefits attributable to GM white maize in South Africa for 2001-2018 are $694.7 million. Food security benefits attributable to GM white maize in South Africa also manifest through an average of 4.6 million additional white maize rations annually. To achieve these additional annual rations using conventional hybrid maize, the additional land required would range from 1088 ha in 2001 to 217,788 ha in 2014. Results indicate that GM maize reduces environmental damage by $0.34 per hectare or $291,721 annually, compared to conventional hybrid white maize.
Keywords
Food security, Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Life cycle assessment (LCA), Maize, Profitability, South Africa, GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CROPS, CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION, BT COTTON, BIOTECHNOLOGY, HEALTH, BENEFITS, FARMERS, CORN

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MLA
Ala-Kokko, Kristiina, et al. “Economic and Ecosystem Impacts of GM Maize in South Africa.” GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 29, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100544.
APA
Ala-Kokko, K., Nalley, L. L., Shew, A. M., Tack, J. B., Chaminuka, P., Matlock, M. D., & D’Haese, M. (2021). Economic and ecosystem impacts of GM maize in South Africa. GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT, 29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100544
Chicago author-date
Ala-Kokko, Kristiina, Lawton Lanier Nalley, Aaron M. Shew, Jesse B. Tack, Petronella Chaminuka, Marty D. Matlock, and Marijke D’Haese. 2021. “Economic and Ecosystem Impacts of GM Maize in South Africa.” GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT 29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100544.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ala-Kokko, Kristiina, Lawton Lanier Nalley, Aaron M. Shew, Jesse B. Tack, Petronella Chaminuka, Marty D. Matlock, and Marijke D’Haese. 2021. “Economic and Ecosystem Impacts of GM Maize in South Africa.” GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT 29. doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100544.
Vancouver
1.
Ala-Kokko K, Nalley LL, Shew AM, Tack JB, Chaminuka P, Matlock MD, et al. Economic and ecosystem impacts of GM maize in South Africa. GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2021;29.
IEEE
[1]
K. Ala-Kokko et al., “Economic and ecosystem impacts of GM maize in South Africa,” GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT, vol. 29, 2021.
@article{8729182,
  abstract     = {{White maize in South Africa is the only staple crop produced on a widespread commercial basis for direct human consumption using genetically modified (GM) cultivars. Using a combined economic and environmental approach, we estimate the total welfare benefits attributable to GM white maize in South Africa for 2001-2018 are $694.7 million. Food security benefits attributable to GM white maize in South Africa also manifest through an average of 4.6 million additional white maize rations annually. To achieve these additional annual rations using conventional hybrid maize, the additional land required would range from 1088 ha in 2001 to 217,788 ha in 2014. Results indicate that GM maize reduces environmental damage by $0.34 per hectare or $291,721 annually, compared to conventional hybrid white maize.}},
  articleno    = {{100544}},
  author       = {{Ala-Kokko, Kristiina and Nalley, Lawton Lanier and Shew, Aaron M. and Tack, Jesse B. and Chaminuka, Petronella and Matlock, Marty D. and D'Haese, Marijke}},
  issn         = {{2211-9124}},
  journal      = {{GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT}},
  keywords     = {{Food security,Genetically modified organisms (GMOs),Life cycle assessment (LCA),Maize,Profitability,South Africa,GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CROPS,CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION,BT COTTON,BIOTECHNOLOGY,HEALTH,BENEFITS,FARMERS,CORN}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{10}},
  title        = {{Economic and ecosystem impacts of GM maize in South Africa}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100544}},
  volume       = {{29}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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