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Effect of Ca(OH)(2) addition on the engineering properties of sodium sulfate activated slag

Xiaodi Dai (UGent) , Serdar Aydin (UGent) , Mert Yücel Yardimci (UGent) , Karel Lesage (UGent) and Geert De Schutter (UGent)
(2021) MATERIALS. 14(15).
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Abstract
Alkali-activated slag is considered as a sustainable construction material due to its environmentally friendly nature. To further promote the sustainable nature of alkali-activated slag, a sodium sulfate activator is suggested to be used since it can be obtained naturally and generates lower greenhouse gas emissions. However, the mixtures activated by sodium sulfate exhibit low early strength and very long setting times. This study investigates the effects of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition on some engineering properties such as rheology, setting time, mechanical properties, porosity, and microstructure of sodium sulfate activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Furthermore, the changes of chemical groups in reaction products and phase identification have been evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. Test results showed that Ca(OH)(2) addition can substantially increase the reaction rate and the compressive strength at early ages. In addition, the very long setting times of the sodium sulfate-activated mixtures were shortened by the addition of Ca(OH)(2). SEM analysis confirmed that the incorporation of excessive amounts of Ca(OH)(2) could lead to a less well-packed microstructure although the reaction degree of GGBFS remained the same at later ages as compared to the sodium sulfate mixture. It was also revealed that in case of the Ca(OH)(2) addition into sodium sulfate activator, the main reaction products are chain-structured C-A-S-H gels and ettringite.
Keywords
BLAST-FURNACE SLAG, STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT, CEMENT, HYDRATION, POROSIMETRY, STABILITY, EVOLUTION, POZZOLAN, ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium sulfate, calcium hydroxide, alkali-activated cements

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MLA
Dai, Xiaodi, et al. “Effect of Ca(OH)(2) Addition on the Engineering Properties of Sodium Sulfate Activated Slag.” MATERIALS, vol. 14, no. 15, 2021, doi:10.3390/ma14154266.
APA
Dai, X., Aydin, S., Yardimci, M. Y., Lesage, K., & De Schutter, G. (2021). Effect of Ca(OH)(2) addition on the engineering properties of sodium sulfate activated slag. MATERIALS, 14(15). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154266
Chicago author-date
Dai, Xiaodi, Serdar Aydin, Mert Yücel Yardimci, Karel Lesage, and Geert De Schutter. 2021. “Effect of Ca(OH)(2) Addition on the Engineering Properties of Sodium Sulfate Activated Slag.” MATERIALS 14 (15). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154266.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dai, Xiaodi, Serdar Aydin, Mert Yücel Yardimci, Karel Lesage, and Geert De Schutter. 2021. “Effect of Ca(OH)(2) Addition on the Engineering Properties of Sodium Sulfate Activated Slag.” MATERIALS 14 (15). doi:10.3390/ma14154266.
Vancouver
1.
Dai X, Aydin S, Yardimci MY, Lesage K, De Schutter G. Effect of Ca(OH)(2) addition on the engineering properties of sodium sulfate activated slag. MATERIALS. 2021;14(15).
IEEE
[1]
X. Dai, S. Aydin, M. Y. Yardimci, K. Lesage, and G. De Schutter, “Effect of Ca(OH)(2) addition on the engineering properties of sodium sulfate activated slag,” MATERIALS, vol. 14, no. 15, 2021.
@article{8727578,
  abstract     = {{Alkali-activated slag is considered as a sustainable construction material due to its environmentally friendly nature. To further promote the sustainable nature of alkali-activated slag, a sodium sulfate activator is suggested to be used since it can be obtained naturally and generates lower greenhouse gas emissions. However, the mixtures activated by sodium sulfate exhibit low early strength and very long setting times. This study investigates the effects of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition on some engineering properties such as rheology, setting time, mechanical properties, porosity, and microstructure of sodium sulfate activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Furthermore, the changes of chemical groups in reaction products and phase identification have been evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. Test results showed that Ca(OH)(2) addition can substantially increase the reaction rate and the compressive strength at early ages. In addition, the very long setting times of the sodium sulfate-activated mixtures were shortened by the addition of Ca(OH)(2). SEM analysis confirmed that the incorporation of excessive amounts of Ca(OH)(2) could lead to a less well-packed microstructure although the reaction degree of GGBFS remained the same at later ages as compared to the sodium sulfate mixture. It was also revealed that in case of the Ca(OH)(2) addition into sodium sulfate activator, the main reaction products are chain-structured C-A-S-H gels and ettringite.}},
  articleno    = {{4266}},
  author       = {{Dai, Xiaodi and Aydin, Serdar and Yardimci, Mert Yücel and Lesage, Karel and De Schutter, Geert}},
  issn         = {{1996-1944}},
  journal      = {{MATERIALS}},
  keywords     = {{BLAST-FURNACE SLAG,STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT,CEMENT,HYDRATION,POROSIMETRY,STABILITY,EVOLUTION,POZZOLAN,ground granulated blast furnace slag,sodium sulfate,calcium hydroxide,alkali-activated cements}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{15}},
  pages        = {{15}},
  title        = {{Effect of Ca(OH)(2) addition on the engineering properties of sodium sulfate activated slag}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14154266}},
  volume       = {{14}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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