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Integrating sensor technology in disposable body-worn absorbent products : a qualitative study to define user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits

Charlotte Raepsaet (UGent) , Brecht Serraes (UGent) , Sofie Verhaeghe (UGent) and Dimitri Beeckman (UGent)
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Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to define the user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits of the integration of sensor technology in disposable body-worn incontinence materials. DESIGN: Qualitative study using a framework method. SUBJECT AND SETTING: The sample included residents with incontinence, nurses, and decision-makers in a selection of Flemish nursing homes (Belgium). METHODS: Semistructured interviews were performed between June and August 2020. The interviews with nurses included open-ended questions focusing on the user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits of the integration of sensor technology in disposable body-worn incontinence materials. The interviews with decision-makers were supplemented with questions about purchase cost and other economic criteria (such as reimbursement). Interviews with residents included questions about wearing comfort. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a framework method. RESULTS: The user profile was defined as (1) residents with cognitive impairment and (2) residents who are bedridden or are severely limited in mobility. The following (technical) criteria emerged from the analyses: a small, thin, and oval/circular sensor, an adaptable or in front attachment of the sensor on the absorbent product, a real-time indication of the absorbent product's saturation, leakage detection, liquid stool detection, the automatic recording of incontinence-related data, a durable sensor easy to disinfect, and receiving notifications on a wearable device. Conditions included a stable connection between the wearable device and the sensor, accurate measurements, user-friendly system, comprehensible training, affordability, and data protection. Potential benefits included workload reduction, increased comfort for residents and staff, more person-centered care, increased quality of care, less skin damage and economic (eg, less costs due to less excessive absorbent product changes), and/or environmental (e.g. less waste) gains. CONCLUSION: Study findings identified the user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits of the integration of sensor technology in disposable body-worn incontinence materials. Respondents reported problems with changing routines and skepticism about the sensor's accuracy. Based on findings from this study, we recommend involving representatives of all relevant stakeholders in the design of sensor technology to ensure users' needs and increase the use of sensor technology. Comprehensive education is recommended to inform nurses, residents, and their family members on the importance and benefits of the technology and to aid overcoming barriers to use (skepticism, resistance to new technologies, and changing care routines). Study findings also indicate that the sensor technology cannot replace the existing voiding programs; rather it should be an addition to routine continence care.
Keywords
Absorbent pads, Incontinence care, Product development, Remote sensing technology, Sensor technology, INSTITUTIONALIZATION, INCONTINENCE, PREDICTORS, SYSTEM

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MLA
Raepsaet, Charlotte, et al. “Integrating Sensor Technology in Disposable Body-Worn Absorbent Products : A Qualitative Study to Define User Profile, (Technical) Criteria, Conditions, and Potential Benefits.” JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING, vol. 48, no. 6, 2021, pp. 560–67, doi:10.1097/WON.0000000000000812.
APA
Raepsaet, C., Serraes, B., Verhaeghe, S., & Beeckman, D. (2021). Integrating sensor technology in disposable body-worn absorbent products : a qualitative study to define user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits. JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING, 48(6), 560–567. https://doi.org/10.1097/WON.0000000000000812
Chicago author-date
Raepsaet, Charlotte, Brecht Serraes, Sofie Verhaeghe, and Dimitri Beeckman. 2021. “Integrating Sensor Technology in Disposable Body-Worn Absorbent Products : A Qualitative Study to Define User Profile, (Technical) Criteria, Conditions, and Potential Benefits.” JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING 48 (6): 560–67. https://doi.org/10.1097/WON.0000000000000812.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Raepsaet, Charlotte, Brecht Serraes, Sofie Verhaeghe, and Dimitri Beeckman. 2021. “Integrating Sensor Technology in Disposable Body-Worn Absorbent Products : A Qualitative Study to Define User Profile, (Technical) Criteria, Conditions, and Potential Benefits.” JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING 48 (6): 560–567. doi:10.1097/WON.0000000000000812.
Vancouver
1.
Raepsaet C, Serraes B, Verhaeghe S, Beeckman D. Integrating sensor technology in disposable body-worn absorbent products : a qualitative study to define user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits. JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING. 2021;48(6):560–7.
IEEE
[1]
C. Raepsaet, B. Serraes, S. Verhaeghe, and D. Beeckman, “Integrating sensor technology in disposable body-worn absorbent products : a qualitative study to define user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits,” JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 560–567, 2021.
@article{8726649,
  abstract     = {{PURPOSE: 
The purpose of this study was to define the user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits of the integration of sensor technology in disposable body-worn incontinence materials.

DESIGN: 
Qualitative study using a framework method.

SUBJECT AND SETTING: 
The sample included residents with incontinence, nurses, and decision-makers in a selection of Flemish nursing homes (Belgium).

METHODS: 
Semistructured interviews were performed between June and August 2020. The interviews with nurses included open-ended questions focusing on the user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits of the integration of sensor technology in disposable body-worn incontinence materials. The interviews with decision-makers were supplemented with questions about purchase cost and other economic criteria (such as reimbursement). Interviews with residents included questions about wearing comfort. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a framework method.

RESULTS: 
The user profile was defined as (1) residents with cognitive impairment and (2) residents who are bedridden or are severely limited in mobility. The following (technical) criteria emerged from the analyses: a small, thin, and oval/circular sensor, an adaptable or in front attachment of the sensor on the absorbent product, a real-time indication of the absorbent product's saturation, leakage detection, liquid stool detection, the automatic recording of incontinence-related data, a durable sensor easy to disinfect, and receiving notifications on a wearable device. Conditions included a stable connection between the wearable device and the sensor, accurate measurements, user-friendly system, comprehensible training, affordability, and data protection. Potential benefits included workload reduction, increased comfort for residents and staff, more person-centered care, increased quality of care, less skin damage and economic (eg, less costs due to less excessive absorbent product changes), and/or environmental (e.g. less waste) gains.

CONCLUSION: 
Study findings identified the user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits of the integration of sensor technology in disposable body-worn incontinence materials. Respondents reported problems with changing routines and skepticism about the sensor's accuracy. Based on findings from this study, we recommend involving representatives of all relevant stakeholders in the design of sensor technology to ensure users' needs and increase the use of sensor technology. Comprehensive education is recommended to inform nurses, residents, and their family members on the importance and benefits of the technology and to aid overcoming barriers to use (skepticism, resistance to new technologies, and changing care routines). Study findings also indicate that the sensor technology cannot replace the existing voiding programs; rather it should be an addition to routine continence care.}},
  author       = {{Raepsaet, Charlotte and Serraes, Brecht and Verhaeghe, Sofie and Beeckman, Dimitri}},
  issn         = {{1071-5754}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF WOUND OSTOMY AND CONTINENCE NURSING}},
  keywords     = {{Absorbent pads,Incontinence care,Product development,Remote sensing technology,Sensor technology,INSTITUTIONALIZATION,INCONTINENCE,PREDICTORS,SYSTEM}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{560--567}},
  title        = {{Integrating sensor technology in disposable body-worn absorbent products : a qualitative study to define user profile, (technical) criteria, conditions, and potential benefits}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1097/WON.0000000000000812}},
  volume       = {{48}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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