Advanced search
1 file | 1.35 MB Add to list

The development of retro-cue benefits with extensive practice : implications for capacity estimation and attentional states in visual working memory

(2021) MEMORY & COGNITION. 49(5). p.1036-1049
Author
Organization
Abstract
Accessing the contents of visual short-term memory (VSTM) is compromised by information bottlenecks and visual interference between memorization and recall. Retro-cues, displayed after the offset of a memory stimulus and prior to the onset of a probe stimulus, indicate the test item and improve performance in VSTM tasks. It has been proposed that retro-cues aid recall by transferring information from a high-capacity memory store into visual working memory (multiple-store hypothesis). Alternatively, retro-cues could aid recall by redistributing memory resources within the same (low-capacity) working memory store (single-store hypothesis). If retro-cues provide access to a memory store with a capacity exceeding the set size, then, given sufficient training in the use of the retro-cue, near-ceiling performance should be observed. To test this prediction, 10 observers each performed 12 hours across 8 sessions in a retro-cue change-detection task (40,000+ trials total). The results provided clear support for the single-store hypothesis: retro-cue benefits (difference between a condition with and without retro-cues) emerged after a few hundred trials and then remained constant throughout the testing sessions, consistently improving performance by two items, rather than reaching ceiling performance. Surprisingly, we also observed a general increase in performance throughout the experiment in conditions with and without retro-cues, calling into question the generalizability of change-detection tasks in assessing working memory capacity as a stable trait of an observer (data and materials are available at osf.io/9xr82 and github.com/paulzerr/retrocues). In summary, the present findings suggest that retro-cues increase capacity estimates by redistributing memory resources across memoranda within a low-capacity working memory store.
Keywords
Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous), Experimental and Cognitive Psychology, Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology, Visual working memory, Working memory capacity, Sensory memory, Attention, Retro-cues, Change-detection

Downloads

  • Zerr2021 Article TheDevelopmentOfRetro-cueBenef.pdf
    • full text (Published version)
    • |
    • open access
    • |
    • PDF
    • |
    • 1.35 MB

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Zerr, Paul, et al. “The Development of Retro-Cue Benefits with Extensive Practice : Implications for Capacity Estimation and Attentional States in Visual Working Memory.” MEMORY & COGNITION, vol. 49, no. 5, 2021, pp. 1036–49, doi:10.3758/s13421-021-01138-5.
APA
Zerr, P., Gayet, S., van den Esschert, F., Kappen, M., Olah, Z., & Van der Stigchel, S. (2021). The development of retro-cue benefits with extensive practice : implications for capacity estimation and attentional states in visual working memory. MEMORY & COGNITION, 49(5), 1036–1049. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01138-5
Chicago author-date
Zerr, Paul, Surya Gayet, Floris van den Esschert, Mitchel Kappen, Zoril Olah, and Stefan Van der Stigchel. 2021. “The Development of Retro-Cue Benefits with Extensive Practice : Implications for Capacity Estimation and Attentional States in Visual Working Memory.” MEMORY & COGNITION 49 (5): 1036–49. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01138-5.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Zerr, Paul, Surya Gayet, Floris van den Esschert, Mitchel Kappen, Zoril Olah, and Stefan Van der Stigchel. 2021. “The Development of Retro-Cue Benefits with Extensive Practice : Implications for Capacity Estimation and Attentional States in Visual Working Memory.” MEMORY & COGNITION 49 (5): 1036–1049. doi:10.3758/s13421-021-01138-5.
Vancouver
1.
Zerr P, Gayet S, van den Esschert F, Kappen M, Olah Z, Van der Stigchel S. The development of retro-cue benefits with extensive practice : implications for capacity estimation and attentional states in visual working memory. MEMORY & COGNITION. 2021;49(5):1036–49.
IEEE
[1]
P. Zerr, S. Gayet, F. van den Esschert, M. Kappen, Z. Olah, and S. Van der Stigchel, “The development of retro-cue benefits with extensive practice : implications for capacity estimation and attentional states in visual working memory,” MEMORY & COGNITION, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1036–1049, 2021.
@article{8725962,
  abstract     = {{Accessing the contents of visual short-term memory (VSTM) is compromised by information bottlenecks and visual interference between memorization and recall. Retro-cues, displayed after the offset of a memory stimulus and prior to the onset of a probe stimulus, indicate the test item and improve performance in VSTM tasks. It has been proposed that retro-cues aid recall by transferring information from a high-capacity memory store into visual working memory (multiple-store hypothesis). Alternatively, retro-cues could aid recall by redistributing memory resources within the same (low-capacity) working memory store (single-store hypothesis). If retro-cues provide access to a memory store with a capacity exceeding the set size, then, given sufficient training in the use of the retro-cue, near-ceiling performance should be observed. To test this prediction, 10 observers each performed 12 hours across 8 sessions in a retro-cue change-detection task (40,000+ trials total). The results provided clear support for the single-store hypothesis: retro-cue benefits (difference between a condition with and without retro-cues) emerged after a few hundred trials and then remained constant throughout the testing sessions, consistently improving performance by two items, rather than reaching ceiling performance. Surprisingly, we also observed a general increase in performance throughout the experiment in conditions with and without retro-cues, calling into question the generalizability of change-detection tasks in assessing working memory capacity as a stable trait of an observer (data and materials are available at osf.io/9xr82 and github.com/paulzerr/retrocues). In summary, the present findings suggest that retro-cues increase capacity estimates by redistributing memory resources across memoranda within a low-capacity working memory store.}},
  author       = {{Zerr, Paul and Gayet, Surya and van den Esschert, Floris and Kappen, Mitchel and Olah, Zoril and Van der Stigchel, Stefan}},
  issn         = {{0090-502X}},
  journal      = {{MEMORY & COGNITION}},
  keywords     = {{Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous),Experimental and Cognitive Psychology,Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology,Visual working memory,Working memory capacity,Sensory memory,Attention,Retro-cues,Change-detection}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{1036--1049}},
  title        = {{The development of retro-cue benefits with extensive practice : implications for capacity estimation and attentional states in visual working memory}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01138-5}},
  volume       = {{49}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

Altmetric
View in Altmetric
Web of Science
Times cited: