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Field evaluation of cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate against pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their side effects on non-target species

(2021) PLANTS-BASEL. 10(9).
Author
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Abstract
During the last few years, quinoa, a traditional Andean crop, has been cultivated at low elevations where pest pressure is high and farmers resort to intensive use of insecticides. This field study investigated the impact of four insecticides (cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate) on insect pests of quinoa and their side effects on the arthropod community at the coastal level of Peru, by analysing the species composition, species diversity and population density. The arthropod community was examined with pitfall traps (for ground dwelling species), plant samplings (for pests and their natural enemies that inhabit the crop), and yellow pan traps (to catch flying insects). The results demonstrated that Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Frankliniella occidentalis and Spoladea recurvalis were efficiently controlled by cypermethrin and imidacloprid; the latter compound also showed long-term effects on Nysius simulans. Teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate proved to be efficient to control S. recurvalis. Imidacloprid had the strongest adverse effects on the arthropod community in terms of species diversity, species composition and natural enemy density as compared to the other insecticides. Findings of this study may assist farmers intending to grow quinoa at the coastal level in selecting the most appropriate insecticides under an integrated pest management approach.
Keywords
insecticides, quinoa pests, side effects, natural enemy, IPM, NATURAL ENEMIES, SELECTIVE INSECTICIDES, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, HEMIPTERA, HETEROPTERA, ARTHROPODS, TOXICITY

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MLA
Cruces, Luis Miguel, et al. “Field Evaluation of Cypermethrin, Imidacloprid, Teflubenzuron and Emamectin Benzoate against Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Their Side Effects on Non-Target Species.” PLANTS-BASEL, vol. 10, no. 9, 2021, doi:10.3390/plants10091788.
APA
Cruces, L. M., de la Pena, E., & De Clercq, P. (2021). Field evaluation of cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate against pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their side effects on non-target species. PLANTS-BASEL, 10(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091788
Chicago author-date
Cruces, Luis Miguel, Eduardo de la Pena, and Patrick De Clercq. 2021. “Field Evaluation of Cypermethrin, Imidacloprid, Teflubenzuron and Emamectin Benzoate against Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Their Side Effects on Non-Target Species.” PLANTS-BASEL 10 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091788.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cruces, Luis Miguel, Eduardo de la Pena, and Patrick De Clercq. 2021. “Field Evaluation of Cypermethrin, Imidacloprid, Teflubenzuron and Emamectin Benzoate against Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Their Side Effects on Non-Target Species.” PLANTS-BASEL 10 (9). doi:10.3390/plants10091788.
Vancouver
1.
Cruces LM, de la Pena E, De Clercq P. Field evaluation of cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate against pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their side effects on non-target species. PLANTS-BASEL. 2021;10(9).
IEEE
[1]
L. M. Cruces, E. de la Pena, and P. De Clercq, “Field evaluation of cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate against pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their side effects on non-target species,” PLANTS-BASEL, vol. 10, no. 9, 2021.
@article{8722818,
  abstract     = {{During the last few years, quinoa, a traditional Andean crop, has been cultivated at low elevations where pest pressure is high and farmers resort to intensive use of insecticides. This field study investigated the impact of four insecticides (cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate) on insect pests of quinoa and their side effects on the arthropod community at the coastal level of Peru, by analysing the species composition, species diversity and population density. The arthropod community was examined with pitfall traps (for ground dwelling species), plant samplings (for pests and their natural enemies that inhabit the crop), and yellow pan traps (to catch flying insects). The results demonstrated that Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Frankliniella occidentalis and Spoladea recurvalis were efficiently controlled by cypermethrin and imidacloprid; the latter compound also showed long-term effects on Nysius simulans. Teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate proved to be efficient to control S. recurvalis. Imidacloprid had the strongest adverse effects on the arthropod community in terms of species diversity, species composition and natural enemy density as compared to the other insecticides. Findings of this study may assist farmers intending to grow quinoa at the coastal level in selecting the most appropriate insecticides under an integrated pest management approach.}},
  articleno    = {{1788}},
  author       = {{Cruces, Luis Miguel and de la Pena, Eduardo and De Clercq, Patrick}},
  issn         = {{2223-7747}},
  journal      = {{PLANTS-BASEL}},
  keywords     = {{insecticides,quinoa pests,side effects,natural enemy,IPM,NATURAL ENEMIES,SELECTIVE INSECTICIDES,COMMUNITY STRUCTURE,HEMIPTERA,HETEROPTERA,ARTHROPODS,TOXICITY}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{9}},
  pages        = {{18}},
  title        = {{Field evaluation of cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate against pests of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) and their side effects on non-target species}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10091788}},
  volume       = {{10}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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