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Plant-wide investigation of sulfur flows in a water resource recovery facility (WRRF)

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Abstract
Even though sulfur compounds and their transformations may strongly affect wastewater treatment processes, their importance in water resource recovery facilities (WRRF) operation remains quite unexplored, notably when it comes to full-scale and plant-wide characterization. This contribution presents a first-of-a-kind, plant-wide quantification of total sulfur mass flows for all water and sludge streams in a full-scale WRRF. Because of its important impact on (post-treatment) process operation, the gaseous emission of sulfur as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was also included, thus enabling a comprehensive evaluation of sulfur flows. Data availability and quality were optimized by experimental design and data reconciliation, which were applied for the first time to total sulfur flows. Total sulfur flows were successfully balanced over individual process treatment units as well as the plant-wide system with only minor variation to their original values, confirming that total sulfur is a conservative quantity. The two-stage anaerobic digestion with intermediate thermal hydrolysis led to a decreased sulfur content of dewatered sludge (by 36%). Higher (gaseous) H2S emissions were observed in the second-stage digester (42% of total emission) than in the first one, suggesting an impact of thermal treatment on the production of H2S. While the majority of sulfur mass flow from the influent left the plant through the treated effluent (> 95%), the sulfur discharge through dewatered sludge and gaseous emissions are critical. The latter are indeed responsible for odour nuisance, lower biogas quality, SO2 emissions upon sludge combustion and corrosion effects.
Keywords
Pollution, Waste Management and Disposal, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Wastewater treatment, Sulfur mass flows, Experimental design, Plant-wide data analysis, Data reconciliation, MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER, ANAEROBIC-DIGESTION, ORGANIC SULFUR, PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY, DATA RECONCILIATION, BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL, SULFATE REDUCTION, SULFIDE CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, DENITRIFICATION

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MLA
Forouzanmehr, Farhang, et al. “Plant-Wide Investigation of Sulfur Flows in a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF).” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 801, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149530.
APA
Forouzanmehr, F., Le, H. Q., Tumlos Solon, K., Maisonnave, V., Daniel, O., Buffiere, P., … Volcke, E. (2021). Plant-wide investigation of sulfur flows in a water resource recovery facility (WRRF). SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149530
Chicago author-date
Forouzanmehr, Farhang, Hong Quan Le, Kimberly Tumlos Solon, V. Maisonnave, O. Daniel, P. Buffiere, S. Gillot, and Eveline Volcke. 2021. “Plant-Wide Investigation of Sulfur Flows in a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF).” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149530.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Forouzanmehr, Farhang, Hong Quan Le, Kimberly Tumlos Solon, V. Maisonnave, O. Daniel, P. Buffiere, S. Gillot, and Eveline Volcke. 2021. “Plant-Wide Investigation of Sulfur Flows in a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF).” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 801. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149530.
Vancouver
1.
Forouzanmehr F, Le HQ, Tumlos Solon K, Maisonnave V, Daniel O, Buffiere P, et al. Plant-wide investigation of sulfur flows in a water resource recovery facility (WRRF). SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. 2021;801.
IEEE
[1]
F. Forouzanmehr et al., “Plant-wide investigation of sulfur flows in a water resource recovery facility (WRRF),” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol. 801, 2021.
@article{8722669,
  abstract     = {{Even though sulfur compounds and their transformations may strongly affect wastewater treatment processes, their importance in water resource recovery facilities (WRRF) operation remains quite unexplored, notably when it comes to full-scale and plant-wide characterization. This contribution presents a first-of-a-kind, plant-wide quantification of total sulfur mass flows for all water and sludge streams in a full-scale WRRF. Because of its important impact on (post-treatment) process operation, the gaseous emission of sulfur as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was also included, thus enabling a comprehensive evaluation of sulfur flows. Data availability and quality were optimized by experimental design and data reconciliation, which were applied for the first time to total sulfur flows. Total sulfur flows were successfully balanced over individual process treatment units as well as the plant-wide system with only minor variation to their original values, confirming that total sulfur is a conservative quantity. The two-stage anaerobic digestion with intermediate thermal hydrolysis led to a decreased sulfur content of dewatered sludge (by 36%). Higher (gaseous) H2S emissions were observed in the second-stage digester (42% of total emission) than in the first one, suggesting an impact of thermal treatment on the production of H2S. While the majority of sulfur mass flow from the influent left the plant through the treated effluent (> 95%), the sulfur discharge through dewatered sludge and gaseous emissions are critical. The latter are indeed responsible for odour nuisance, lower biogas quality, SO2 emissions upon sludge combustion and corrosion effects.}},
  articleno    = {{149530}},
  author       = {{Forouzanmehr, Farhang and Le, Hong Quan and Tumlos Solon, Kimberly and Maisonnave, V. and Daniel, O. and Buffiere, P. and Gillot, S. and Volcke, Eveline}},
  issn         = {{0048-9697}},
  journal      = {{SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT}},
  keywords     = {{Pollution,Waste Management and Disposal,Environmental Chemistry,Environmental Engineering,Wastewater treatment,Sulfur mass flows,Experimental design,Plant-wide data analysis,Data reconciliation,MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER,ANAEROBIC-DIGESTION,ORGANIC SULFUR,PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY,DATA RECONCILIATION,BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL,SULFATE REDUCTION,SULFIDE CONTROL,MANAGEMENT,DENITRIFICATION}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{9}},
  title        = {{Plant-wide investigation of sulfur flows in a water resource recovery facility (WRRF)}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149530}},
  volume       = {{801}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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