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Propagation-loss characterization for livestock implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz

Said Benaissa (UGent) , Leen Verloock (UGent) , Denys Nikolayev, Margot Deruyck (UGent) , Günter Vermeeren (UGent) , Luc Martens (UGent) , Jan Govaere (UGent) , Frank Tuyttens, Bart Sonck, David Plets (UGent) , et al.
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Abstract
Automated systems based on wearable sensors for livestock monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Specifically, wireless in-body sensors could yield relevant data, such as ruminal temperature. The collection of such data requires an accurate characterization of the in-to-out body wireless channel between the in-body sensor and the gateway. The aim of this study is to experimentally characterize the in-to-out-body propagation loss for cows and horses at 433, 868, and 1400 MHz. Measurements were conducted in vivo on five different fistulated cows and five horse cadavers using specialized robust in-body capsule antennas inside the animals' abdomen. Next, the in-body antenna gain was deembedded from the wireless channel, and the in-to-out body propagation loss was obtained as the difference between measured unobstructed line-of-sight path losses and in-to-out-body path losses. The measurements showed a body propagation loss of (mean +/- standard deviation) 30.8 +/- 4.1 dB, 44.5 +/- 4.8 dB, and 54.2 +/- 4.7 dB for cows at 433, 868, and 1400 MHz, respectively. For horses, the body propagation losses were 23.2 +/- 3.8 dB, 31.0 +/- 4.7 dB, and 44.4 +/- 3.2 dB at 433, 868, and 1400 MHz, respectively. These results are important to determine the wireless range of WBANs to optimize the network topology and estimate the associated network cost for large-scale monitoring systems.
Keywords
BODY PATH LOSS, DAIRY-COWS, IN-BODY, WIRELESS, MODEL, ANTENNAS, SENSOR, CHANNEL, DESIGN, RUMEN, Antenna measurements, Cows, Horses, Animals, Antennas, Loss measurement, Wireless communication, Body loss, capsule antenna, cow, horse, in-body, in-to-out-body path loss, internet-of-animals, link budget, propagation, radio channel

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Benaissa, Said, et al. “Propagation-Loss Characterization for Livestock Implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, vol. 69, no. 8, 2021, pp. 5166–70, doi:10.1109/TAP.2021.3060501.
APA
Benaissa, S., Verloock, L., Nikolayev, D., Deruyck, M., Vermeeren, G., Martens, L., … Joseph, W. (2021). Propagation-loss characterization for livestock implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, 69(8), 5166–5170. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2021.3060501
Chicago author-date
Benaissa, Said, Leen Verloock, Denys Nikolayev, Margot Deruyck, Günter Vermeeren, Luc Martens, Jan Govaere, et al. 2021. “Propagation-Loss Characterization for Livestock Implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION 69 (8): 5166–70. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2021.3060501.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Benaissa, Said, Leen Verloock, Denys Nikolayev, Margot Deruyck, Günter Vermeeren, Luc Martens, Jan Govaere, Frank Tuyttens, Bart Sonck, David Plets, and Wout Joseph. 2021. “Propagation-Loss Characterization for Livestock Implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION 69 (8): 5166–5170. doi:10.1109/TAP.2021.3060501.
Vancouver
1.
Benaissa S, Verloock L, Nikolayev D, Deruyck M, Vermeeren G, Martens L, et al. Propagation-loss characterization for livestock implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. 2021;69(8):5166–70.
IEEE
[1]
S. Benaissa et al., “Propagation-loss characterization for livestock implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 5166–5170, 2021.
@article{8722500,
  abstract     = {{Automated systems based on wearable sensors for livestock monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Specifically, wireless in-body sensors could yield relevant data, such as ruminal temperature. The collection of such data requires an accurate characterization of the in-to-out body wireless channel between the in-body sensor and the gateway. The aim of this study is to experimentally characterize the in-to-out-body propagation loss for cows and horses at 433, 868, and 1400 MHz. Measurements were conducted in vivo on five different fistulated cows and five horse cadavers using specialized robust in-body capsule antennas inside the animals' abdomen. Next, the in-body antenna gain was deembedded from the wireless channel, and the in-to-out body propagation loss was obtained as the difference between measured unobstructed line-of-sight path losses and in-to-out-body path losses. The measurements showed a body propagation loss of (mean +/- standard deviation) 30.8 +/- 4.1 dB, 44.5 +/- 4.8 dB, and 54.2 +/- 4.7 dB for cows at 433, 868, and 1400 MHz, respectively. For horses, the body propagation losses were 23.2 +/- 3.8 dB, 31.0 +/- 4.7 dB, and 44.4 +/- 3.2 dB at 433, 868, and 1400 MHz, respectively. These results are important to determine the wireless range of WBANs to optimize the network topology and estimate the associated network cost for large-scale monitoring systems.}},
  author       = {{Benaissa, Said and Verloock, Leen and Nikolayev, Denys and Deruyck, Margot and Vermeeren, Günter and Martens, Luc and Govaere, Jan and Tuyttens, Frank and Sonck, Bart and Plets, David and Joseph, Wout}},
  issn         = {{0018-926X}},
  journal      = {{IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION}},
  keywords     = {{BODY PATH LOSS,DAIRY-COWS,IN-BODY,WIRELESS,MODEL,ANTENNAS,SENSOR,CHANNEL,DESIGN,RUMEN,Antenna measurements,Cows,Horses,Animals,Antennas,Loss measurement,Wireless communication,Body loss,capsule antenna,cow,horse,in-body,in-to-out-body path loss,internet-of-animals,link budget,propagation,radio channel}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{8}},
  pages        = {{5166--5170}},
  title        = {{Propagation-loss characterization for livestock implantables at (433, 868, 1400) MHz}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2021.3060501}},
  volume       = {{69}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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