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Water resources studies in headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : a review with emphasis on lake water balance and hydrogeological characterization

(2021) WATER. 13(11).
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Abstract
The Lake Tana Basin, comprising the largest natural lake in Ethiopia, is the source and the uppermost part of the Upper Blue Nile Basin. In this review paper, research papers, mainly on the rainfall-runoff modeling and lake water balance, and on the hydrogeology, have been reviewed. The earlier water balance estimation attempts used simple conceptual and statistical approaches and calculate on a monthly timescale. More recent research has been using advanced semi-physically or physically based distributed hydrological models. Accordingly, mean annual precipitation over the lake was estimated in the range 36.1-53.1%; lake evaporation at 45.3-57.5%; river inflow (all gauged and estimated ungauged) at 43.6-63.9%; and river (lake) water outflow at 0-9.2%. With the few isotope studies, groundwater inflow and outflow are found insignificant. Different studies had estimated groundwater recharge, ranging from 57 mm to 850 mm. The basin has a heterogenous aquifer system consisting of different volcanic rocks and alluvio-lacustrine sediments. Generally, groundwater with low TDS, Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, isotopically relatively enriched, and high TDS, Na-HCO3 type, isotopically relatively depleted, water types have been identified. In this paper, major research gaps such as aquifer hydraulic characterization, surface-groundwater interaction, groundwater flow and groundwater balance have been identified. Hence, future research shall focus on the groundwater resources, so that existing surface water studies are updated and future water usage options are explored.
Keywords
VOLCANIC AQUIFER SYSTEM, TANA BASIN, GROUNDWATER RECHARGE, RIVER-BASIN, RAINFALL INTENSITY, SURFACE-WATER, RUNOFF, ETHIOPIA, FLOODPLAIN, CATCHMENT, Lake Tana Basin, water balance, hydrogeology, aquifer, recharge, research gap

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MLA
Yenehun, Alemu, et al. “Water Resources Studies in Headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : A Review with Emphasis on Lake Water Balance and Hydrogeological Characterization.” WATER, vol. 13, no. 11, 2021, doi:10.3390/w13111469.
APA
Yenehun, A., Dessie, M., Azeze, M., Nigate, F., Belay, A. S., Nyssen, J., … Walraevens, K. (2021). Water resources studies in headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : a review with emphasis on lake water balance and hydrogeological characterization. WATER, 13(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111469
Chicago author-date
Yenehun, Alemu, Mekete Dessie, Mulugeta Azeze, Fenta Nigate, Ashebir Sewale Belay, Jan Nyssen, Enyew Adgo, Ann Van Griensven, Marc Van Camp, and Kristine Walraevens. 2021. “Water Resources Studies in Headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : A Review with Emphasis on Lake Water Balance and Hydrogeological Characterization.” WATER 13 (11). https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111469.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Yenehun, Alemu, Mekete Dessie, Mulugeta Azeze, Fenta Nigate, Ashebir Sewale Belay, Jan Nyssen, Enyew Adgo, Ann Van Griensven, Marc Van Camp, and Kristine Walraevens. 2021. “Water Resources Studies in Headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : A Review with Emphasis on Lake Water Balance and Hydrogeological Characterization.” WATER 13 (11). doi:10.3390/w13111469.
Vancouver
1.
Yenehun A, Dessie M, Azeze M, Nigate F, Belay AS, Nyssen J, et al. Water resources studies in headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : a review with emphasis on lake water balance and hydrogeological characterization. WATER. 2021;13(11).
IEEE
[1]
A. Yenehun et al., “Water resources studies in headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : a review with emphasis on lake water balance and hydrogeological characterization,” WATER, vol. 13, no. 11, 2021.
@article{8721936,
  abstract     = {{The Lake Tana Basin, comprising the largest natural lake in Ethiopia, is the source and the uppermost part of the Upper Blue Nile Basin. In this review paper, research papers, mainly on the rainfall-runoff modeling and lake water balance, and on the hydrogeology, have been reviewed. The earlier water balance estimation attempts used simple conceptual and statistical approaches and calculate on a monthly timescale. More recent research has been using advanced semi-physically or physically based distributed hydrological models. Accordingly, mean annual precipitation over the lake was estimated in the range 36.1-53.1%; lake evaporation at 45.3-57.5%; river inflow (all gauged and estimated ungauged) at 43.6-63.9%; and river (lake) water outflow at 0-9.2%. With the few isotope studies, groundwater inflow and outflow are found insignificant. Different studies had estimated groundwater recharge, ranging from 57 mm to 850 mm. The basin has a heterogenous aquifer system consisting of different volcanic rocks and alluvio-lacustrine sediments. Generally, groundwater with low TDS, Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, isotopically relatively enriched, and high TDS, Na-HCO3 type, isotopically relatively depleted, water types have been identified. In this paper, major research gaps such as aquifer hydraulic characterization, surface-groundwater interaction, groundwater flow and groundwater balance have been identified. Hence, future research shall focus on the groundwater resources, so that existing surface water studies are updated and future water usage options are explored.}},
  articleno    = {{1469}},
  author       = {{Yenehun, Alemu and Dessie, Mekete and Azeze, Mulugeta and Nigate, Fenta and Belay, Ashebir Sewale and Nyssen, Jan and Adgo, Enyew and Van Griensven, Ann and Van Camp, Marc and Walraevens, Kristine}},
  issn         = {{2073-4441}},
  journal      = {{WATER}},
  keywords     = {{VOLCANIC AQUIFER SYSTEM,TANA BASIN,GROUNDWATER RECHARGE,RIVER-BASIN,RAINFALL INTENSITY,SURFACE-WATER,RUNOFF,ETHIOPIA,FLOODPLAIN,CATCHMENT,Lake Tana Basin,water balance,hydrogeology,aquifer,recharge,research gap}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{11}},
  pages        = {{28}},
  title        = {{Water resources studies in headwaters of the Blue Nile Basin : a review with emphasis on lake water balance and hydrogeological characterization}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w13111469}},
  volume       = {{13}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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