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Point-of-care 3D printing : a low-cost approach to teaching carotid artery stenting

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Abstract
Background: Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) is increasingly being used in selected patients as a minimal invasive approach to carotid endarterectomy. Despite the long standing tradition of endovascular treatments, visual feedback during stent-deployment is impossible to obtain as deployment is performed under fluoroscopic imaging. Furthermore, the concept of stent-placement is often still unclear to patients. 3D Printing allows to replicate patient-specific anatomies and deploy stents inside them to simulate procedures. As such these models are being used for endovascular training as well as patient education. Purpose: To our knowledge, this study reports the first use of a low-cost patient-specific 3D printed model for teaching CAS deployment under direct visualization, without fluoroscopy. Methodology: A CT-angiogram was segmented and converted to STL format using Mimics inPrint™ software. The carotid arteries were bilaterally truncated to fit the whole model on a Formlabs 2 printer without omitting the internal vessel diameter. Next, this model was offset using a 1 mm margin. A ridge was modelled on the original vessel anatomy which was subsequently subtracted from the offset model in order to obtain a deroofed 3D model. All vessels were truncated to facilitate post-processing, flow and guide wire placement. Results: Carotid artery stents were successfully deployed inside the vessel. The deroofing allows for clear visualization of the bottlenecks and characteristics of CAS deployment and positioning, including stent foreshortening, tapering and recoil. This low-cost 3D model provides visual insights in stent deployment and positioning, and can allow for patient-specific procedure planning. Conclusions: The presented approach demonstrates the use of low-cost 3D Printed CAS models in teaching complex stent behavior as observed during deployment. Two main findings are illustrated. On one hand, the feasibility of low-cost in-hospital model production is shown. On the other hand, the teaching of CAS deployment bottlenecks at the carotid level without the need for fluoroscopic guidance, is illustrated. The observed stent characteristics as shown during deployment are difficult to assess in radiologic models. Furthermore, printing patient-specific 3D models preoperatively could possibly assist in accurate patient selection, preoperative planning, case-specific training and patient education.
Keywords
Computer Science Applications, Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging, Biomedical Engineering, Carotid Artery Stenting, 3D Printing, Training, Surgical Education, Phantom, ENDARTERECTOMY, GUIDELINES, MANAGEMENT, SIMULATION, OUTCOMES, TRIAL

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MLA
De Backer, Pieter, et al. “Point-of-Care 3D Printing : A Low-Cost Approach to Teaching Carotid Artery Stenting.” 3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE, vol. 7, no. 1, 2021, doi:10.1186/s41205-021-00119-3.
APA
De Backer, P., Allaeys, C., Debbaut, C., & Beelen, R. (2021). Point-of-care 3D printing : a low-cost approach to teaching carotid artery stenting. 3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41205-021-00119-3
Chicago author-date
De Backer, Pieter, Charlotte Allaeys, Charlotte Debbaut, and Roel Beelen. 2021. “Point-of-Care 3D Printing : A Low-Cost Approach to Teaching Carotid Artery Stenting.” 3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE 7 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41205-021-00119-3.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Backer, Pieter, Charlotte Allaeys, Charlotte Debbaut, and Roel Beelen. 2021. “Point-of-Care 3D Printing : A Low-Cost Approach to Teaching Carotid Artery Stenting.” 3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE 7 (1). doi:10.1186/s41205-021-00119-3.
Vancouver
1.
De Backer P, Allaeys C, Debbaut C, Beelen R. Point-of-care 3D printing : a low-cost approach to teaching carotid artery stenting. 3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE. 2021;7(1).
IEEE
[1]
P. De Backer, C. Allaeys, C. Debbaut, and R. Beelen, “Point-of-care 3D printing : a low-cost approach to teaching carotid artery stenting,” 3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE, vol. 7, no. 1, 2021.
@article{8719999,
  abstract     = {{Background: Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) is increasingly being used in selected patients as a minimal invasive approach to carotid endarterectomy. Despite the long standing tradition of endovascular treatments, visual feedback during stent-deployment is impossible to obtain as deployment is performed under fluoroscopic imaging. Furthermore, the concept of stent-placement is often still unclear to patients. 3D Printing allows to replicate patient-specific anatomies and deploy stents inside them to simulate procedures. As such these models are being used for endovascular training as well as patient education.

Purpose: To our knowledge, this study reports the first use of a low-cost patient-specific 3D printed model for teaching CAS deployment under direct visualization, without fluoroscopy.

Methodology: A CT-angiogram was segmented and converted to STL format using Mimics inPrint™ software. The carotid arteries were bilaterally truncated to fit the whole model on a Formlabs 2 printer without omitting the internal vessel diameter. Next, this model was offset using a 1 mm margin. A ridge was modelled on the original vessel anatomy which was subsequently subtracted from the offset model in order to obtain a deroofed 3D model. All vessels were truncated to facilitate post-processing, flow and guide wire placement.

Results: Carotid artery stents were successfully deployed inside the vessel. The deroofing allows for clear visualization of the bottlenecks and characteristics of CAS deployment and positioning, including stent foreshortening, tapering and recoil. This low-cost 3D model provides visual insights in stent deployment and positioning, and can allow for patient-specific procedure planning.

Conclusions: The presented approach demonstrates the use of low-cost 3D Printed CAS models in teaching complex stent behavior as observed during deployment. Two main findings are illustrated. On one hand, the feasibility of low-cost in-hospital model production is shown. On the other hand, the teaching of CAS deployment bottlenecks at the carotid level without the need for fluoroscopic guidance, is illustrated. The observed stent characteristics as shown during deployment are difficult to assess in radiologic models. Furthermore, printing patient-specific 3D models preoperatively could possibly assist in accurate patient selection, preoperative planning, case-specific training and patient education.}},
  articleno    = {{27}},
  author       = {{De Backer, Pieter and Allaeys, Charlotte and Debbaut, Charlotte and Beelen, Roel}},
  issn         = {{2365-6271}},
  journal      = {{3D PRINTING IN MEDICINE}},
  keywords     = {{Computer Science Applications,Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging,Biomedical Engineering,Carotid Artery Stenting,3D Printing,Training,Surgical Education,Phantom,ENDARTERECTOMY,GUIDELINES,MANAGEMENT,SIMULATION,OUTCOMES,TRIAL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{7}},
  title        = {{Point-of-care 3D printing : a low-cost approach to teaching carotid artery stenting}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41205-021-00119-3}},
  volume       = {{7}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}

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